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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 824962, 8 pages
Research Article

Modulation and Interaction of Immune-Associated Parameters with Antioxidant in the Immunocytes of Crab Scylla paramamosain Challenged with Lipopolysaccharides

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China

Received 14 January 2011; Accepted 16 April 2011

Copyright © 2011 Singaram Gopalakrishnan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Invertebrates are dependent on cellular and humoral immune defences against microbial infection. Scylla paramamosain is an important commercial species, but the fundamental knowledge on its immune defense related to the antioxidant and immune-associated reactions is still lacking. The study was to differentiate the responses of immune-associated parameters of haemolymph components in S. paramamosain when challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). The immunostimulating effects of LPS in crab by triggering various immune parameters (phagocytosis, lysozyme, antibacterial activity, phenoloxidase, and the generation of superoxide and nitric oxide) were investigated. Results showed that the generation of free radicals, phenoloxidase, lysozyme and antibacterial activities was significantly increased through the exposure periods. Conversely, total hemocyte count and lysosomal membrane stability decreased significantly as the exposure period extended to 96 h. The relationship between the antioxidant enzymes and immune reactions due to LPS was highly significant. In addition, ROS production was positively correlated with antioxidant showing immediate response of antioxidant defense to the oxyradicals generated. Overall, the study indicated that nonspecific immune components in hemocytes of crab showed active response to the LPS stimulation, and their responses suggested that many immune-associated parameters could be modulated and interrelated with the influence of antioxidants in crustaceans.