Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 898593, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/neq021
Original Article

Antiamnesic Activity of an Ayurvedic Formulation Chyawanprash in Mice

1Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125001, India
2Rajendra Institute of Technology & Sciences, 4th milestone Hisar Road, Sirsa 125055, India

Received 20 April 2009; Accepted 1 March 2010

Copyright © 2011 Milind Parle and Nitin Bansal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Liu, T. van Groen, I. Kadish, and T. O. Tollefsbol, “DNA methylation impacts on learning and memory in aging,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 549–560, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Okano, T. Hirano, and E. Balaban, “Learning and memory,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 23, pp. 12403–12404, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. Sharma, N. Singh, and M. Singh, “Modulation of celecoxib- and streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's disease by pitavastatin and donepezil,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 162–171, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Zanardi, G. Leo, G. Bragine, and M. Zoli, “Nicotine and neurodegeneration in aging,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 127, pp. 207–215, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  5. X. Zhu, M. A. Smith, K. Honda et al., “Vascular oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 257, no. 1-2, pp. 240–246, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. G. Beach, “Physiologic origins of age-related β-amyloid deposition,” Neurodegenerative Diseases, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 143–145, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. S. Aisen, “The potential of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 279–284, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Parle and N. Bansal, “Traditional medicinal formulation, Chyawanprash—a review,” Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 5, pp. 484–488, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  9. R. K. Sharma, Samhita Chikitsa Sthanam, Bhagwan Dash Choukhambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India, 1st edition, 1988.
  10. S. Manjunatha, A. K. Jaryal, R. L. Bijlani, U. Sachdeva, and S. K. Gupta, “Effect of Chyawanprash and vitamin C on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein profile,” Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 71–79, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. K. Jose and R. Kuttan, “Hepatoprotectice activity of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 72, no. 1-2, pp. 135–140, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. S. Handa, A. Sharma, and K. K. Chakraborti, “Natural products and plants as liver protecting drugs,” Fitoterapia, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 307–351, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. K. Ojha, N. N. Khanna, H. S. Bajpay, and N. Sharma, “A clinical study on Chyawanprash as an adjuvant in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis,” Journal of Research in Indian Medicine, vol. 10, pp. 11–14, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Vasudevan and M. Parle, “Memory enhancing activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an ayurvedic preparation,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 46–54, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. S. Yadav, S. Thakur, and P. Chadha, “Chyawanprash Awaleha: a genoprotective agent for Bidi smokers,” International Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 3, pp. 33–38, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Parle and N. Bansal, “Anti-ageing plants,” in Indian Medicinal Plants, P. C. Trivedi, Ed., pp. 32–48, Aavishkar, Jaipur, India, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  17. V. Raghu, K. Platel, and K. Srinivasan, “Comparison of ascorbic acid content of Emblica officinalis fruits determined by different analytical methods,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 20, pp. 529–533, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  18. D. Dhingra, M. Parle, and S. K. Kulkarni, “Comparative brain cholinesterase inhibiting activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Myristica fragrans, ascorbic acid and metrifonate in mice,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 281–283, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Parle and D. Dhingra, “Ascorbic acid: a promising memory-enhancer in mice,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 129–135, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Vasudevan and M. Parle, “Effect of Anwala Churna (Emblica officinalis GAERTN): an ayurvedic preparation on memory deficit rats,” Yakugaku Zasshi, vol. 127, no. 10, pp. 1701–1707, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. L. Harburger, J. C. Bennett, and K. M. Frick, “Effects of estrogen and progesterone on spatial memory consolidation in aged females,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 602–610, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Fan, J. Hu, J. Li et al., “Effect of acidic oligosaccharide sugar chain on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats & its related mechanisms,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 374, pp. 222–226, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Parle and N. Singh, “Animal models for testing memory,” Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 101–120, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Parle and N. Singh, “Reversal of memory deficits by atorvastatin and simvastatin in rats,” Yakugaku Zasshi, vol. 127, no. 7, pp. 1125–1137, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Parle, M. Vasudevan, and N. Singh, “Swim everyday to keep dementia away,” Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Vasudevan and M. Parle, “Pharmacological actions of Thespesia populnea relevant to Alzheimer's disease,” Phytomedicine, vol. 13, no. 9-10, pp. 677–687, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y.-M. Cui, M.-Z. Ao, W. Li, and L.-J. Yu, “Effect of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory in mice,” Planta Medica, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 377–380, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Sharma, N. Singh, M. Singh, and A. S. Jaggi, “Exploitation of HIV protease inhibitor Indinavir as a memory restorative agent in experimental dementia,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 535–545, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. L. Ellman, K. D. Courtney, V. Andres Jr., and R. M. Featherstone, “A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 88–95, 1961. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Voss and K. Sachsse, “Red cell and plasma cholinesterase activities in microsamples of human and animal blood determined simultaneously by a modified acetylthiocholine/DTNB procedure,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 6, pp. 764–772, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  31. E. Beutler, O. Duron, and B. M. Kelly, “Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 61, pp. 882–888, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  32. H. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, and K. Yagi, “Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 351–358, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Fratiglioni, B. Winblad, and E. von Strauss, “Prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Major findings from the Kungsholmen Project,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 98–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Pettenati, R. Annicchiarico, and C. Caltagirone, “Clinical pharmacology of anti-Alzheimer drugs,” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 659–672, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. L. Cummings, “Alzheimer's disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, pp. 56–67, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  36. A. A. Izzo and F. Capasso, “Herbal medicines to treat Alzheimer's disease,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 47–48, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Vasudevan and M. Parle, “Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 308–316, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. Joshi and M. Parle, “Brahmi rasayana improves learning and memory in mice,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 79–85, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. Singh, A. Sharma, and M. Singh, “Possible mechanism of alprazolam-induced amnesia in mice,” Pharmacology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 46–50, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. R. Zarrindast, A. Bakhsha, P. Rostani, and B. Shafaghi, “Effect of intrahippocampal injection of GABAergic drugs on memory selection of passive avoidance in learning rats,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 16, pp. 313–319, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  41. C. Behl, “Alzheimer's disease and oxidative stress: Implications for novel therapeutic approaches,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 301–323, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. Praticò, “Oxidative stress hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease: a reappraisal,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 609–615, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. E. Khalifa, “Pro-oxidant activity of zuclopenthixol in vivo: differential effect of the drug on brain oxidative status of scopolamine treated rats,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 23, pp. 439–445, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  44. D. A. El-Sherbiny, A. E. Khalifa, A. S. Attia, and E. E.-D. S. Eldenshary, “Hypericum perforatum extract demonstrates antioxidant properties against elevated rat brain oxidative status induced by amnestic dose of scopolamine,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 76, no. 3-4, pp. 525–533, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. N. P. Visavadiya and A. V. R. L. Narasimhacharya, “Hypocholesteremic and antioxidant effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) in hypercholesteremic rats,” Phytomedicine, vol. 14, no. 2-3, pp. 136–142, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. V. M. Di Mambro and M. J. V. Fonseca, “Assays of physical stability and antioxidant activity of a topical formulation added with different plant extracts,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 287–295, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. N. P. Visavadiya and A. V. R. L. Narasimhacharya, “Sesame as a hypocholesteraemic and antioxidant dietary component,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1889–1895, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. L. Devi, S. Kannapan, and C. V. Anuradha, “Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of Indian bay leaf, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm using rat brain synaptosomes as model system,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 45, pp. 778–884, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  49. H. N. Saada, U. Z. Said, N. H. Meky, and A. S. Abd El Azime, “Grape seed extract Vitis vinifera protects against radiation-induced oxidative damage and metabolic dosprders in rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, pp. 434–438, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  50. J. Karthikeyan and P. Rani, “Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in selected Piper species,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 135–140, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. Auddy, M. Ferreira, F. Blasina et al., “Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 84, no. 2-3, pp. 131–138, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H.-S. Lee, H. W. Nam, H. K. Kyoung, H. Lee, W. Jun, and K.-W. Lee, “Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula in vivo and in vitro,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1639–1644, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. C. Jagetia and M. S. Baliya, “The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of cetain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 7, pp. 343–348, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  54. E. O. Akinrimisi and A. I. Akinwande, “Biochemical studies of acetylcholine esterase inhibitor present in Eugenia caryophyllus,” West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 141–148, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Sreemantula, S. Nammi, R. Kolanukonda, S. Koppula, and K. M. Boini, “Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5, article 1, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. N. Dhuley, “Nootropic-like effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 524–528, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. B. Vinubha, D. Prashanth, K. Salma et al., “Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase activity,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 109, pp. 359–363, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  58. J. Wattanathorthorn, P. Chonpathompikunlert, S. Muchimapura, A. Priprem, and O. Tankamnerdthai, “Piperine, the potential functional food for mood and cognition disorders,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, pp. 3106–3110, 2008. View at Google Scholar