Table 1: Antibacterial effect of Viperidae venoms against Gram-positive and Gram-negative drug-resistant clinical bacteria.

StrainInhibition zone (mm)a
A. rhodostomaB. atroxB. jararacaL. muta

E. faecalis16 ± 216 ± 213 ± 11 ± 1
S. epidermidis16 ± 118 ± 200
S. aureus13 ± 212 ± 116 ± 12 ± 1
E. coli11 ± 17 ± 15 ± 20
S. morcencens8 ± 18 ± 27 ± 11 ± 1
P. mirabilis7 ± 17 ± 17 ± 12 ± 1
P. aeruginosa8 ± 28 ± 18 ± 11 ± 1
E. calcoacetic9 ± 16 ± 26 ± 22 ± 1
A. calcoacetic1 ± 22 ± 11 ± 11 ± 1
K. pneumoniae9 ± 110 ± 110 ± 20

values represent a venom inhibition zone in millimeters, after l8 h incubation performed in triplicate assays ( ). Significant results were considered the halo >15 mm as vancomycin and ciprofloxacin presented halo = 15–17 and 23–25 mm, respectively.