Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

Table 1

Animal species commercialized for medicinal purposes in the municipalities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceió-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA.

Family/species/local namePart usedDisease (or illness)RI totalNumber of citations per city/RI per city
AracajuFortalezaMaceióRecifeSalvador

Molluscs
Achatinidae
Achatina fulica (Ferussac, 1821), giant east African snail, caramujo gigante africanoShellStroke0.125/0.14
Cardiidae
Trachycardium muricatum (Linnaeus, 1758), yellow pricklycockle, rala-côcoShellStroke0.122/0.14
Strombidae
Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758, west Indian fighting conch, estrombo-lutador-
das-Índias-Ocidentais
ShellStroke and “simpatias”0.232/0.561/0.14

Insects
Apidae
Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758), honey bee, abelha italianaHoney and waxBronchitis, cough, flu, nasal congestion, asthma, sore throat, stomach ache, diarrhea, and cracks in the feet0.624/0.7822/1.024/0.3210/0.346/0.36
Melipona subnitida (Ducke, 1910), stingless bee, jandaíraHoney and waxSore throat, cough, and diarrhea0.184/0.55
Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811, stingless bee, uruçuHoney and waxAsthma, cough, flu, nasal congestion, earache, stomach ache, diarrhea, and gastritis0.594/1.091/0.18
Partamona cupira (Smith, 1863), stingless bee, abelha cupiraHoney and waxSore throat, flu, cough, nasal congestion, and diarrhea0.332/0.552/0.431/0.34
Blattidae
Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), cockroach, barataWings and whole animalAsthma and earache0.232/0.56
Termitidae
Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855), térmite, cupim de aroeiraWhole animalAsthma, cough, flu, and sore throat0.214/0.45

Equinoderms
Echinasteridae
Echinaster echinophorus (Lamarck, 1816), starfish, estrela do marWhole animalAsthma, flu, stroke, “simpatias,” erysipelas, cancer, and thrombosis0.647/0.833/0.446/0.60
Oreasteridae
Oreaster reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758), starfish, estrela do marWhole animalAsthma, stroke, erysipelas, cancer, “simpatias,” and evil eyes0.616/0.831/0.243/0.546/0.594/0.56

Fishes
Erythrinidae
Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794), trhaira, traíraFatEarache, healing, strain, sore throat, cough, asthma, swelling, urinary infection, and infections0.792/1.394/1.17
Gymnotidae
Electrophorus electricus, (Linnaeus, 1766), electric eel, peixe-elétrico, LRFatRheumatism, osteoporosis, crack in the feet, pains, inflammation, sore throat, asthma, cough, sinusitis, flu, swelling, itch, wound, earache, toothache, burns, muscular pain, bruises, strain, headache, joint pain, erysipelas, snake bites, skin diseases, healing, and boils1.511/0.674/1.792/1.411/0.643/1.26
Syngnathidae
Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933), longsnout seahorse, cavalo-marinho, DDWhole animalAsthma, flu, stroke, erysipelas, toothache, circulatory problems, and thrombosis0.644/0.394/0.244/0.547/0.289/0.78
Unidentified family
Shark, tubarãoCartilageRheumatism0.121/0.24
Unidentified family
Stingray, RaiaFatSore throat, pains, rheumatism, burns, asthma, and infections0.531/1.26

Amphibians
Bufonidae
Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002), cururu toad, sapo cururu, LRSkin and fatSore throat, asthma, flu, cough, rheumatism, inflammation, backache, osteoporosis, arthrosis, arthritis, strain, diarrhea, “simpatias,” toothache, cancer, infections, and earache1.131/0.677/1.451/0.941/0.18
Leptodactylidae
Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (Spix, 1824), South American pepper frog, rã-pimenta, LRFatSore throat, cough, and asthma0.182/0.38
Leptodactylus vastus Lutz, 1930, South American pepper frog, rã-pimenta, LRFatSore throat, cough, asthma, arthritis, and backache0.333/0.69

Reptiles
Chelidae
Tortoise, cágado_FortalezaFatRheumatism, cracks in the feet, arthrosis, backache, sore throat, and swelling0.532/1.10
Tortoise, cágado_RecifeCarapaceAsthma, burns, and rheumatism0.351/0.53
Cheloniidae
Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758), green turtle, tartaruga verde, EMFat and carapaceSore throat, rheumatism, swelling, inflammation, burns, healing, cough, asthma, arthritis, backache, cancer, backache, stroke, thrombosis, erysipelas, stomach ache, and infections1.184/1.381/0.92
Testudinidae
Chelonoidis sp, tortoise, jabutiFatSore throat, cough, asthma, earache, backache, and inflammations0.531/1.17
Iguanidae
Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758), common green iguana, camaleão, DDFat and tailEarache, deafness, sore throat, inflammations, swelling, wounds, burns, and acne0.673/0.711/1.05
Teiidae
Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825), spix’s whiptail, calangoWhole animalStroke, thrombosis, cancer, and hemorrhoids0.302/0.71
Tupinambis merianae (Duméril and Bibron, 1839), teju lizard, téju, LRFat, skin, and tailSore throat, pneumonia, sinusitis, flu, bronchitis, asthma, cough, rheumatism, swelling, strain, inflammations, earache, deafness, backache, arthrosis, arthritis, burns, osteoporosis, healing, muscular pain, cracks in the feet, toothache, headache, itch, lung problems, infections, pains, injuries, gastritis, snake bites, and skin diseases1.671/2.0012/1.833/1.798/1.825/1.66
Boidae
Boa constrictor (Linnaeus, 1758), boa, jibóia, DDSkin, fat, bone, and fecesSore throat, cough, toothache, rheumatism, inflammations, asthma, flu, arthrosis, osteoporosis, cracks in the feet pains, arthritis, backache, healing, “simpatias,” swelling, bruises, cancer, tuberculosis, pneumonia, edemas, and stomach ache1.292/1.678/1.603/1.522/0.86
Epicrates cenchria (Linnaeus, 1758), rainbow boa, salamanta, DDFatSore throat, rheumatism, swelling, backache, arthrosis, burns, and toothache0.561/1.17
Colubridae
Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823), Lichtenstein’s green racer, cobra verdeWhole animalStroke0.121/0.18
Spilotes pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758), yellow rat snake, caninana,Bone and fatSore throat, cancer, and inflammations0.351/0.42
Elapidae
Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820), caatinga coral snake, cobra-coralFatRheumatism, asthma, toothache, sore throat, cough, osteoporosis, swelling, inflammations, arthritis, and healing0.573/0.97
Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758), rattlesnake, cascavel, LRFat, rattle, bone, and skinBackache, rheumatism, cracks in the feet, osteoporosis, swelling, inflammation, arthritis, arthrosis, asthma, sore throat, earache, healing, burns, toothache, cough, bronchitis, snake bites, stroke, muscular pain, injuries, epilepsy, cancer, tuberculosis, “simpatias,” “evil eyes,” “attract partners,” and “attract money”1.702/1.673/1.382/2.004/1.883/0.96
Unidentified family
Alligator, jacaré_AracajuSkinStroke, asthma, bronchitis, and rheumatism0.383/0.94
Alligator, jacaré_MaceióSkinStroke, bronchitis, backache, toothache, snake bite, and rheumatism0.532/0.98
Alligator, jacaré_RecifeFat and skinSinusitis, bronchitis, asthma, sore throat, toothache, burns, thrombosis, cancer, and diarrhea0.714/1.35
Alligator, jacaré_SalvadorSkinAsthma, stroke, tuberculosis, sexual impotence, snake bites, inflammations, menstrual cramps, headache, and stomach ache1.076/1.24

Birds
Anatidae
Anser anser (Linnaeus, 1758), greylag goose, gansoFatFlu, cough and sore throat0.181/0.28
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758, mallard, patoFat and eggsAsthma, sore throat, sinusitis, and sexual impotence0.302/0.54
Ciconiidae
Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793), black vulture, urubu, LRFat, liver, and e feather“Simpatias,” alcoholism, and asthma0.351/0.244/0.442/0.18
Columbidae
Columba livia Gmelin, 1789, common pigeon, PomboFatSore throat, sinusitis, cough, and asthma0.212/0.26
Phasianidae
Gallus gallus, (Linnaeus, 1758), chicken, galinhaFat and spurCough, sore throat, flu, sinusitis, sexual impotence, swelling, nasal congestion, fever, diarrhea, earache, skin diseases, strain, burns, menstrual cramps, inflammations, pains, bruise, and cracks in the feet1.332/0.892/0.552/0.344/1.62
Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758), helmeted guineafowl, galinha d’angolaFatNasal congestion, flu, rheumatism, asthma, strain, burns, and healing0.481/0.58
Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758), common peafowl, pavãoFat and featherSnake bite, asthma, and sore throat0.261/0.441/0.28
Rheidae
Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758), greater rhea, ema, NTFatAcne, rheumatism, cracks in the feet, burns, and nasal congestion0.491/0.76
Unidentified family
Owl, coruja_FortalezaFat“Simpatias”0.121/0.24
Owl, coruja_SalvadorFatSore throat, rheumatism, toothache, sinusitis, pains, and infections0.441/0.54
Unidentified family
Pheasant, faisãoFatSore throat, rheumatism, toothache, sinusitis, and pains0.411/0.50
Unidentified family
Hawk, gaviãoFatAsthma, cough, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and earache0.531/0.64

Mammals
Agoutidae
Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766), spotted paca, paca, LRPenisSexual impotence0.121/0.14
Bovidae
Bos taurus (Linnaeus, 1758), cow, boiFat, tail, skin, horn, and fel (bile)Asthma, sore throat, flu, stroke, bronchitis, thrombosis, swelling, diarrhea, sexual impotence, “evil eyes,” and “simpatias”0.774/0.244/0.602/0.535/0.82
Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758), water buffalo, buffaloTail and hornAsthma, stroke, and “evil eyes”0.351/0.41
Capra hircus (Linnaeus, 1758), domestic goat, bodeFat and brainCracks in the feet, burns, sore throat, asthma, sinusitis, pain, toothache, rheumatism, osteoporosis, infections, inflammations, bruise, erysipelas, strain, and sexual impotence0.981/0.562/1.041/0.762/0.72
Ovis aries (Linnaeus, 1758), sheep, carneiroFatRheumatism, cracks in the feet, sore throat, osteoporosis, arthritis, arthrosis, healing, inflammations, cough, swelling, flu, asthma, burns, pains, muscular pain, acne, circulatory problems, joint pain, bruise, strain, and toothache1.092/1.115/1.313/1.3612/1.571/0.46
Bradypodidae
Bradypus sp., sloth, preguiçaFat, nail, and skinThrombosis, stroke, asthma, sore throat, “evil eyes,” and circulatory problems0,444/0.712/0.64
Canidae
Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758), dog, cachorroFat“Simpatias”0.121/0.24
Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), fox, raposa, LRFatFlu, asthma, pains, inflammations, snake bites, strain, rheumatism, and sore throat0.594/1.091/0.18
Cervidae
Mazama gouazoubira (G. Fischer, 1814), gray brocket, veado, VUTail, horne, and tíbia“Simpatias,” asthma, sore throat, cough, arthritis, and rheumatism0.442/0.933/1.204/0.952/0.48
Dasypodidae
Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758), nine-banded armadillo, tatu galinha, LRFat and tailDeafness, earache, asthma, burns, sinusitis, cough, pains, inflammations, urinary infection, strain, and rheumatism0.851/0.711/1.15
Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758), six-banded armadillo, tatu-peba, LRFat, tail, and legsDeafness, earache, asthma, burns, sinusitis, cough, pains, inflammations, strain, rheumatism, “evil eyes,” urinary infection, sexual impotence, injuries, tuberculosis, infections, and osteoporosis1.221/0.711/1.203/1.22
Delphinidae
Sotalia guianensis (P.-J. van Bénéden, 1864), Guianan river dolphin, boto, DDFat, penis, eyes, and blood“Simpatias,” “attract partners,” asthma, rheumatism, osteoporosis, burns, sexual impotence, swelling, inflammations, arthrosis, toothache, headache, stomach ache, earache, erysipelas, flu, cough, sore throat, muscular pain, menstrual cramps, cancer, tuberculosis, pneumonia, thrombosis, snake bites, skin diseases, healing, and backache1.901/1.221/0.247/1.586/1.796/1.58
Erethizontidae
Coendou prehensilis (Linnaeus, 1758), Brazilian porcupine, porco-espinho, coandú, LRSpineAsthma, bronchitis, cough, thrombosis, cancer, eczema, acne, toothache, stroke, “attract money,” and earache0.941/0.833/0.541/0.716/0.64
Felidae
Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758), ocelot, jaguatirica, gato maracajá, DDEyesAsthma, “evil eyes,” and sexual impotence0.351/0.53
Myrmecophagidae
Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758), Anteater, tamanduá bandeiraSkinStroke0.121/0.14
Phyllostomidae
Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810), vampire bat, morcego, DDWhole animalAsthma, stroke, and rheumatism0.353/0.42
Suidae
Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758), pig, porcoFatAcne, boils, and bronchitis0.261/0.41
Trichechidae
Trichechus manatus (Linnaeus, 1758), manatee, peixe-boi, CRFatBurns, earache, swelling, wounds, menstrual cramps, bruises, asthma, flu, toothache, inflammations, pains, rheumatism, arthrosis, arthritis, backache, osteoporosis, cancer, thrombosis, sore throat, sinusitis, erysipelas, snake bites, skin diseases, healing, headache, cracks in the feet, and sexual impotence1.871/1.224/1.632/1.283/2.00
Unidentified family
Whale, baleia_RecifeFatSore throat and menstrual cramps0.231/0.36
Whale, baleia_SalvadorFatRheumatism and menstrual cramps0.232/0.28

Legends: RI: relative importance; CR: critically endangered; EN: endangered; VU: vulnerable; NT: near threatened; LR: lower risk; DD: deficient data.

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