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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 128019, 12 pages
Research Article

Involvement of Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction in the Cytoprotective and Immunomodulatory Activities of Viola patrinii in Murine Hippocampal and Microglia Cells

1Standardized Material Bank for New Botanical Drugs, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
2College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701, Republic of Korea
3Key Laboratory of Natural Resources of Changbai Mountain & Functional Molecules, Yanbian University, Ministry of Education, Yanji, Jilin 133-000, China

Received 18 November 2011; Revised 4 January 2012; Accepted 10 January 2012

Academic Editor: Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan

Copyright © 2012 Bin Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A number of diseases that lead to injury of the central nervous system are caused by oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. In this study, NNMBS275, consisting of the ethanol extract of Viola patrinii, showed potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine hippocampal HT22 cells and BV2 microglia. NNMBS275 increased cellular resistance to oxidative injury caused by glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species generation in HT22 cells. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effects of NNMBS275 were demonstrated by the suppression of proinflammatory mediators, including proinflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β). Furthermore, we found that the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of NNMBS275 were linked to the upregulation of nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2-dependent expression of heme oxygenase-1 in HT22 and BV2 cells. These results suggest that NNMBS275 possesses therapeutic potential against neurodegenerative diseases that are induced by oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.