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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 143489, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/143489
Research Article

Evaluation of Effects of Chinese Prescription Kangen-karyu on Diabetes-Induced Alterations such as Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Liver of Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice

1Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
2Iskra Industry Co., Ltd., 1-14-2 Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0027, Japan
3Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok-dong, Jeonnam 540-742, Republic of Korea
4Organization for Promotion of Regional Collaboration, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japan

Received 16 November 2011; Revised 22 June 2012; Accepted 22 June 2012

Academic Editor: Vassya Bankova

Copyright © 2012 Chan Hum Park et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The present study was conducted to examine whether Kangen-karyu has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced alterations such as oxidative stress and apoptosis in the liver of type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Kangen-karyu (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) was administered every day for 18 weeks to db/db mice and its effect was compared with vehicle-treated db/db and m/m mice. The administration of Kangen-karyu decreased the elevated serum glucose and leptin concentrations in db/db mice, and reduced the increased oxidative biomarkers including the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. The db/db mice exhibited the upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits, NF-E2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase-1, nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in the liver; however, Kangen-karyu treatment significantly reduced those expressions. Moreover, the augmented expressions of apoptosis-related proteins, Bax, cytochrome c, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphor-JNK, AP-1, and caspase-3, were downregulated by Kangen-karyu administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the increased hepatocellular damage in the liver of db/db mice improved by Kangen-karyu administration. Our findings support the therapeutic evidence for Kangen-karyu ameliorating the development of diabetic hepatic complications via regulating oxidative stress and apoptosis.