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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 147896, 9 pages
Research Article

Synergistic Cytotoxic Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Bacillus Calmette Guérin on Premalignant Urothelial HUC-PC Cells and Its Regulation on Proinflammatory Cytokine Secretion

1School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong
2Department of Medical Science, Tung Wah College, Homantin, Hong Kong
3Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong

Received 9 May 2012; Accepted 12 July 2012

Academic Editor: Jae Youl Cho

Copyright © 2012 John Wai-man Yuen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is conventionally used as an adjuvant immunotherapy to reduce the recurrence of bladder cancer. To address the issues of efficacy and safety, an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GLe) was evaluated for its interaction with BCG. In a model of premalignant human uroepithelial cells (HUC-PC), GLe exerted immediate cytotoxic effects while BCG showed a delayed response, given that both were immunological active in inducing the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Synergistic cytotoxic effects were observed when cells were either coincubated with both drugs or firstly preincubated with GLe. Synergism between GLe and BCG was demonstrated to achieve a complete cytostasis in 24 hours, and such effects were progressed in the subsequent 5 days. However, the pretreatment of GLe resulted in suppression of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretions without affecting the cytotoxicity. Given that numerous proinflammatory cytokines are associated with the high side effects toll of BCG, results herein suggested the potential implications of GL to supplement the BCG immunotherapy in bladder cancer, for better efficacy and reducing side effects.