A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats
Synthesis and degradation of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The detailed pathway of the synthesis and degradation of dopamine, norepinepherine (a) and serotonin (b) were shown. The arrows indicate the up- and downregulation of the corresponding mRNA level by the treatment of KXS. TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; AADC: aromatic acid decarboxylase; MAOB: monoamine oxidase B; COMT: catechol-O-methyl-transferase; DOPAC: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; 3-MT: 3-methoxytyramine; DBH: dopamine β-hydroxylase; DOPEG: dihydroxyphenylglycol; NM: normetanephrine; TPH: tryptophan hydroxylase; 5-HTP: 5-hydroxytryptophan; MAOA: monoamine oxidase A; 5-HIAA: 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid.