Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2012 / Article / Fig 8

Research Article

A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

Figure 8

Synthesis and degradation of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The detailed pathway of the synthesis and degradation of dopamine, norepinepherine (a) and serotonin (b) were shown. The arrows indicate the up- and downregulation of the corresponding mRNA level by the treatment of KXS. TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; AADC: aromatic acid decarboxylase; MAOB: monoamine oxidase B; COMT: catechol-O-methyl-transferase; DOPAC: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; 3-MT: 3-methoxytyramine; DBH: dopamine β-hydroxylase; DOPEG: dihydroxyphenylglycol; NM: normetanephrine; TPH: tryptophan hydroxylase; 5-HTP: 5-hydroxytryptophan; MAOA: monoamine oxidase A; 5-HIAA: 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid.