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Figure 5: Vitamin D has no effect on OA severity. The evaluation of OA was performed during the OA progression phase.(a)–(d). The gene expression of TLR-4 (a), MMP-3 (b), TNF-α (c), and IL-1β (d) from rats in the sV + Psv group (●) compared with the sV + PnV (×) and the nV + PnV () groups. The gene expression levels were normalized to GAPDH gene expression and are presented as the -fold difference in expression. (e) A comparison of the hypertrophy (wideness) of condyles from the rats of the sV + PsV (●), sV + PnV (×) and nV + PnV () groups is shown. The results shown are pooled data from three independent experiments with 16 to 18 total rats (a–d) or with 12 to 16 total rats (e). The error bars indicate the SEM. A -test with an F test was performed; the notations indicate and . The following groups were included: sV + PsV (vitamin supplementation during induction and progression with supplementation of vitamin); sV + PnV (vitamin supplementation during induction and progression without vitamin supplementation); (without vitamin supplementation during induction and progression without vitamin supplementation). For the supplement, 4 IU of vitamin D was administrated daily.