Research Article

Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant

Figure 2

ESE reduced cell viability and induced morphological changes, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation in HCT 116 cells. (a) Cells were exposed to various concentrations of ESE (0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 μg/mL) for 24 h and determined and analyzed the viability using the MTT assay. (b) HCT 116 cells in response to 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of ESE for 24-h exposure were photographed at 200x magnification and showed apoptotic morphological changes. (c) Cells were cultured with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 μg/mL of ESE for 24 h for determining apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis. (d) Treatment with ESE (50 μg/mL) in HCT 116 cells shows DNA ladders by DNA gel electrophoresis. The values presented are the mean ± S.D. (n = 3) from three independent experiments. *** shows a significant different when compared to control (0 h) sample.