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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 234713, 13 pages
Research Article

A Comparative Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effects of Brain Wave Vibration Training, Iyengar Yoga, and Mindfulness on Mood, Well-Being, and Salivary Cortisol

1Psychology Department, Goldsmiths, University of London, ITC Building, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, UK
2Korea Institute of Brain Science, Caroline Tower, 613-5, Sinsa-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-894, Republic of Korea

Received 4 July 2011; Revised 1 September 2011; Accepted 12 September 2011

Academic Editor: Ann Gill Taylor

Copyright © 2012 Deborah Bowden et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This randomised trial compared the effects of Brain Wave Vibration (BWV) training, which involves rhythmic yoga-like meditative exercises, with Iyengar yoga and Mindfulness. Iyengar provided a contrast for the physical components and mindfulness for the “mental” components of BWV. 35 healthy adults completed 10 75-minute classes of BWV, Iyengar, or Mindfulness over five weeks. Participants were assessed at pre- and postintervention for mood, sleep, mindfulness, absorption, health, memory, and salivary cortisol. Better overall mood and vitality followed both BWV and Iyengar training, while the BWV group alone had improved depression and sleep latency. Mindfulness produced a comparatively greater increase in absorption. All interventions improved stress and mindfulness, while no changes occurred in health, memory, or salivary cortisol. In conclusion, increased well-being followed training in all three practices, increased absorption was specific to Mindfulness, while BWV was unique in its benefits to depression and sleep latency, warranting further research.