Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 254849, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/254849
Research Article

Inhibition of , , TNF- and iNOS EXpression by Shorea robusta L.: An Ethnomedicine Used for Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity

1ICMR Virus Unit, ID and BG Hospital, GB 4, First Floor, 57 Dr. Suresh C Banerjee Road, Beliaghata, Kolkata 700010, India
2Department of Applied Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215, India
3Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata 700010, India
4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India

Received 7 January 2012; Revised 30 January 2012; Accepted 30 January 2012

Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo

Copyright © 2012 Chattopadhyay Debprasad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. G. Colditz, “Margination and emigration of leucocytes,” Survey and synthesis of pathology research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 44–68, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. Kasama, R. M. Strieter, T. J. Standiford, M. D. Burdick, and S. L. Kunkel, “Expression and regulation of human neutrophil-derived macrophage inflammatory protein 1α,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Ferrero-Miliani, O. H. Nielsen, P. S. Andersen, and S. E. Girardin, “Chronic inflammation: importance of NOD2 and NALP3 in interleukin-1β generation,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 227–235, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Gaddi, A. F. G. Cicero, and E. J. Pedro, “Clinical perspectives of anti-inflammatory therapy in the elderly: the lipoxigenase (LOX)/cycloxigenase (COX) inhibition concept,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 201–212, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Chattopadhyay, G. Arunachalam, A. B. Mandal, R. Bhadra, and S. C. Mandal, “CNS activity of the methanol extract of Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell Arg. leaf: an ethnomedicine of Onge,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 99–105, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. Chattopadhyay and M. T. H. Khan, “Ethnomedicines and ethnomedicinal phytophores against herpesviruses,” Biotechnology Annual Review, vol. 14, pp. 297–348, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. M. Verma, N. P. Balakrishnan, and R. D. Dixit, Flora of Madhya Pradesh, vol. 1, Botanical Survey of India, 1993.
  8. http://himalayahealthcare.Com/aboutayurveda/cahs.htm#shorea.
  9. Y. N. Singh, “Traditional medicine in Fiji: some herbal folk cures used by Fiji Indians,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–88, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Kaur, R. Dayal, V. K. Varshney, and J. P. Bartley, “GC-MS analysis of essential oils of heartwood and resin of Shorea robusta,” Planta Medica, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 883–886, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Jyothi, W. M. Carey, R. B. Kumar, and K. G. Mohan, “Antinoceptive and antiinflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Shorea robusta,” Pharmacologyonline, vol. 1, pp. 9–19, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. World Health Organization Guidelines, Macroscopic and Microscopic Examination: Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998.
  13. P. H. List and P. C. Schmidt, Phytopharmaceutical Technology, Heyden, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1989.
  14. D. Chattopadhyay, K. Maiti, A. P. Kundu et al., “Antimicrobial activity of Alstonia macrophylla: a folklore of bay islands,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Chattopadhyay, G. Arunachalam, T. K. Sur, S. K. Bhattacharya, and A. B. Mandal, “Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Alstonia macrophylla and Mallotus peltatus leaf extracts: two popular Ethnomedicines of Onge, A Nigrito Tribes of Little Andaman,” Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 124–136, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  16. G. Arunachalam, P. Bag, and D. Chattopadhyay, “Phytochemical and phytotherapeutic evaluation of Mallotus peltatus (Geist.) Muell. Arg. var acuminatus and Alstonia macrophylla wall ex A. DC: Two Ethnomedicine of Andaman Islands, India,” Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  17. H. Wagner and S. Bladt, Plant Drug Analysis, A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2nd edition, 1996.
  18. D. J. Ecobichon, The Basis of Toxiciology Testing, CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  19. R. Koster, M. Anderson, and E. J. de Beer, “Acetic acid for analgesics screening,” Federation Proceedings, vol. 18, pp. 412–417, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  20. D. Chattopadhyay, “Advances in phytomedicine: ethnomedicine and drug discovery (book review),” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 8, no. 10, article 535, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  21. C. A. Winter, E. A. Risley, and G. W. Nuss, “Carrageenan induced oedema in hind paw of rat as assay for antiinflamatory drugs,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 111, pp. 544–547, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  22. D. Chattopadhyay, G. Arunachalam, A. B. Mandal, T. K. Sur, S. C. Mandal, and S. K. Bhattacharya, “Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of folklore: Mallotus peltatus leaf extract,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 82, no. 2-3, pp. 229–237, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Arunachalam, D. Chattopadhyay, S. Chatterjee, A. B. Mandal, T. K. Sur, and S. C. Mandal, “Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Alstonia macrophylla Wall ex A. DC. leaf extract,” Phytomedicine, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 632–635, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Kavimani, T. Vetrichelvan, R. Ilango, and B. Jaykar, “Antiinflammatory activity of the volatile oil of Toddalia asiatica,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 67–70, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. D. D'Arcy, E. M. Howard, P. W. Muggleton, and S. B. Townsend, “The antiinflammatory action of griseofulvin in experimental animals,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 12, pp. 659–665, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  26. B. A. Whittle, “The use of changes in capillary permeability in mice to distinguish between narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 246–253, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  27. U. A. Shinde, S. A. Phadke, A. M. Nair, A. A. Mungantiwar, V. J. Dikshit, and M. N. Saraf, “Membrane stabilizing activity—a possible mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory activity of Cedrus deodara wood oil,” Fitoterapia, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 251–257, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. U. Singh, J. Tabibian, S. K. Venugopal, S. Devaraj, and I. Jialal, “Development of an in vitro screening assay to test the antiinflammatory properties of dietary supplements and pharmacologic agents,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2252–2256, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H.-J. Jung, S.-G. Kim, J.-H. Nam et al., “Isolation of saponins with the inhibitory effect on nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-α production from Pleurospermum kamtschaticum,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1668–1671, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. E. Gosselin, R. P. Smith, and H. C. Hodge, Clinical Toxicity of Commercial Products, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1984.
  31. R. D. Petry, G. G. Ortega, and W. B. Silva, “Flavonoid content assay: influence of the reagent concentration and reaction time on the spectrophotometric behavior of the aluminium chloride—flavonoid complex,” Pharmazie, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 465–470, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. K. Hota and M. Bapuji, “Triterpenoids from the resin of Shorea robusta,” Phytochemistry, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 466–468, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. N. Misra and A. Ahmad, “Triterpenoids from Shorea robusta resin,” Phytochemistry, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 575–578, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. B. Harborne, “Recent advances in chemical ecology,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 509–523, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. O. Prakash and J. T. Rao, “A new flavone glycoside from the seeds of Shorea robusta,” Fitoterapia, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 539–541, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. M. S. Chauhan, M. Singh, and L. Narayan, “Isolation of 3β-hydroxyolean-12-ene, friedelin and 7-methoxy-4′-5-dihydroxyisoflavone from dry and fresh leaves of Shorea robusta,” Indian Journal of Chemistry Section B, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1097–1099, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Heller, T. Koch, J. Schmeck, and K. van Ackern, “Lipid mediators in inflammatory disorders,” Drugs, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 487–496, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. K. Sur, S. Pandit, D. K. Bhattacharya et al., “Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of Betula alnoides bark,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 669–671, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. T. J. Williams and J. Morley, “Prostaglandins as potentiators of increased vascular permeability in inflammation,” Nature, vol. 246, no. 5430, pp. 215–217, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. White, “Mediators of inflammation and the inflammatory process,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 103, supplement 2, no. 3, pp. S378–S381, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. P. van Wauwe and J. G. Goosens, “Arabinogalactan and dextran-induced ear inflammation in mice: differential inhibition by H1-antihistamines, 5-HT-serotonin antagonists and lipoxygenase blockers,” Agents and Actions, vol. 28, no. 1-2, pp. 78–82, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. X. Zhang, C. J. Kirschning, R. Mancinelli et al., “Bacterial lipopolysaccharide activates nuclear factor-κB through interleukin-1 signalling mediators in cultured human dermal endothelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 274, no. 12, pp. 7611–7614, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Tang and J. W. Eaton, “Inflammatory responses to biomaterials,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 466–471, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. J. Hu, J. W. Eaton, T. P. Ugarova, and L. Tang, “Molecular basis of biomaterial-mediated foreign body reactions,” Blood, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1231–1238, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. N. Brown and L. J. Roberts, “Histamine, bradykinin, and their antagonists,” in Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, L. L. Brunton, J. S. Lazo, and K. L. Parker, Eds., pp. 645–667, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USA, 11th edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  46. K. Whaley and A. D. Burt, “Inflammation, healing and repair,” in Muir's Textbook of Pathology, R. M. N. MacSween and K. Whaley, Eds., pp. 112–165, Arnold, London, UK, 13th edition, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  47. O. O. Oyedapo and A. J. Famurewa, “Anti-protease and membrane stabilizing activities of extracts of Fagra zanthoxiloides, Olax subscropioides and Tetrapleura tetraptera,” International Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 33, pp. 65–69, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  48. B. Halliwell, J. R. F. Hoult, and D. R. Blake, “Oxidants, inflammation, and anti-inflammatory drugs,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 2867–2873, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Ferrali, C. Signorini, L. Ciccoli, and M. Comporti, “Iron release and membrane damage in erythrocytes exposed to oxidizing agents, phenylhydrazine, divicine and isouramil,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 285, no. 1, pp. 295–301, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. R. J. Maxwell, “Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies,” Drugs, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 345–361, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. M. Perez, S. Perez, M. A. Zavala, and M. Salazar, “Anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Hippocratea excelsa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 85–90, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Aitadafoun, C. Mounieri, S. F. Heyman, C. Binistic, C. Bon, and J. Godhold, “4-Alkoxybenzamides as new potent phosholipase A2 inhibitors,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 51, pp. 737–742, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  53. H. J. Park, K. T. Lee, W. T. Jung, J. W. Choi, and S. Kadota, “Protective effects of syringin isolated from Kalopanax pictus on galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity,” Natural Medicines, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 113–117, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Seibert, Y. Zhang, K. Leahy et al., “Pharmacological and biochemical demonstration of the role of cyclooxygenase 2 in inflammation and pain,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91, no. 25, pp. 12013–12017, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. L. Masferrer, B. S. Zweifel, P. T. Manning et al., “Selective inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 in vivo is antiinflammatory and nonulcerogenic,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 3228–3232, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Harada, N. Sekido, T. A. K. Akahoshi, T. Wada, N. Mukaida, and K. Matsushima, “Essential involvement of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in acute inflammation,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 559–564, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Feldmann, F. M. Brennan, and R. N. Maini, “Role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 14, pp. 397–440, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. R. Watkins, S. F. Maier, and L. E. Goehler, “Immune activation: the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammation, illness responses and pathological pain states,” Pain, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 289–302, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. H. Holtmann and M. F. Neurath, “Differential TNF-signaling in chronic inflammatory disorders,” Current Molecular Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 439–444, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Dore and J. Sirois, “Regulation of P-selectin expression by inflammatory mediators in canine jugular endothelial cells,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 662–671, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. T. Marucha, R. A. Zeff, and D. L. Kreutzer, “Cytokine regulation of IL-1β gene expression in the human polymorphonuclear leukocyte,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 145, no. 9, pp. 2932–2937, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. C. Fernandez, J. Walters, and P. Marucha, “Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of GM-CSF-induced IL-1β gene expression in PMN,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 598–603, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Gouwy, S. Struyf, P. Proost, and J. van Damme, “Synergy in cytokine and chemokine networks amplifies the inflammatory response,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 561–580, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. Tang, T. A. Jennings, and J. W. Eaton, “Mast cells mediate acute inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 15, pp. 8841–8846, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Dalu, B. S. Blaydes, L. G. Lomax, and K. B. Delclos, “A comparison of the inflammatory response to a polydimethylsiloxane implant in male and female Balb/c mice,” Biomaterials, vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 1947–1957, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. Kato, H. Haro, H. Komori, and K. Shinomiya, “Sequential dynamics of matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor and plasmin expressions in the resorption process of herniated disc,” The Spine Journal, vol. 2, no. 5, article 106, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  67. E. Middleton, C. Kandaswami, and T. C. Theoharides, “The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 673–751, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. B. H. Havsteen, “The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 96, no. 2-3, pp. 67–202, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. Chattopadhyay, G. Arunachalam, A. B. Mandal, and S. K. Bhattacharya, “Dose-dependent therapeutic antiinfectives from ethnomedicines of bay islands,” Chemotherapy, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 151–157, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus