Inulae Flos and Its Compounds Inhibit TNF-α- and IFN-γ-Induced Chemokine Production in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes
Effects of solvent fractions of the 70% methanol extract of Inulae Flos on chemokine production in HaCaT cells. Cells were treated with the different solvent fractions (hexane, 0.625–2.5 μg/mL; ethyl acetate, 6.25–25 μg/mL; chloroform, 0.625–2.5 μg/mL; butyl alcohol, 25–100 μg/mL; water, 50–200 μg/mL) and then costimulated TNF-α and IFN-γ (each 10 ng/mL) for 24 h. As the positive control, cells were treated with silymarin (6.25–25 μg/mL). The levels of TARC (a), MDC (b), and RANTES (c) released into the culture medium were assessed using commercially available ELISA kits. Each bar represents the mean of three independent experiments. ## versus vehicle control group; * and ** versus TNF-α/IFN-γ treated cells.
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