Figure 1: The effect of apamin on expression levels of proinflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecules in LPS-treated THP-1-derived macrophages. (a) Expression levels of TNF-α in culture supernatant, as determined by ELISA, significantly inhibited by apamin in a dose-dependent manner. (b) Expression levels of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were determined by western blot. They were decreased by apamin in a dose-dependent manner. As a loading control, GAPDH was used to confirm equal sample loading. * compared to control cells, # compared to control cells treated with LPS alone.