Figure 3: Acupuncture-induced robust axon reflex (a) and its involvement in the propagated sensation along meridians (PSM) (b). In (a), hyperemia (flare) was induced by acupuncture needling in acupoint areas of Bladder Meridian Foot Taiyang in the back. (b) illustrates putative communication between adjacent branches of nerves from different spinal segments via neuroactive mediators released by acupuncture stimulation from neural and non-neuronal tissues. (b) was reproduced based on the work done by Professor Zhao’s research group with his generous permission (also see [20, 21, 224]).