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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 649727, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/649727
Research Article

Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

1Natural Plant Products Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, P.O. Box No. 6, Palampur 176 061 (HP), India
2Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, P.O. Box No. 6, Palampur 176 061 (HP), India

Received 24 November 2011; Revised 19 January 2012; Accepted 26 January 2012

Academic Editor: Raffaele Capasso

Copyright © 2012 Mayanka Walia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as eucalyptol (43.7%), phytol (11.5%), α-farnesene (9.6%), and pentacosane (7.6%). Cytotoxicity of essential oil of leaves of M. domestica was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. The essential oil of leaves of M. domestica, tested against three cancer cell lines, namely, C-6 (glioma cells), A549 (human lung carcinoma), CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells), and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell). The highest activity showed by essential oil on C-6 cell lines (98.2%) at concentration of 2000 μg/ml compared to control. It is the first paper in literature to exploit the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of leaves essential oil of M. domestica.