Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 705327, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/705327
Review Article

Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Yangming Branch, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 11146, Taiwan
4Department of Physical Therapy and Assistive Technology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan

Received 14 November 2012; Accepted 21 December 2012

Academic Editor: Chang-Zern Hong

Copyright © 2012 Li-Wei Chou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. G. Travell and D. G. Simons, Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual, vol. 1, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1983.
  2. C. Z. Hong, “Myofascial pain therapy,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp. 37–43, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Z. Hong and D. G. Simons, “Pathophysiologic and electrophysiologic mechanisms of myofascial trigger points,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 79, no. 7, pp. 863–872, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Z. Hong, “Muscle pain syndrome,” in Braddom: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, chapter 43, pp. 971–1001, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. D. G. Simons, J. G. Travell, and L. S. Simons, Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual, vol. 1, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2nd edition, 1999.
  6. R. D. Gerwin, S. Shannon, C. Z. Hong, D. Hubbard, and R. Gevirtz, “Interrater reliability in myofascial trigger point examination,” Pain, vol. 69, no. 1-2, pp. 65–73, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Z. Hong, “Considerations and recommendations regarding myofascial trigger point injection,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 29–59, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Z. Hong, “Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome,” Current Pain and Headache Reports, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 345–349, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Borg-Stein and D. G. Simons, “Myofascial pain,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. S40–S47, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Kostopoulos and K. Rizopoulos, The Manual of Trigger Point and Myofascial Therapy, SLACK, Thorofare, NJ, USA, 2001.
  11. R. Cailliet Soft tissue pain and disability, F. A. Davis, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1977.
  12. C. Z. Hong, “New trends in myofascial pain syndrome,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 501–512, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. J. Kao, T. I. Han, T. S. Kuan, Y. L. Hsieh, B. H. Su, and C. Z. Hong, “Myofascial trigger points in early life,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 251–254, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. I. Han, C. Z. Hong, F. C. Kuo, Y. L. Hsieh, L. W. Chou, and M. J. Kao, “Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children—possible development of myofascial trigger points in children,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 13, article 13, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. G. Simons and J. Travell, “Myofascial trigger points, a possible explanation,” Pain, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 106–109, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. G. Simons, “Review of enigmatic MTrPs as a common cause of enigmatic musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction,” Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 95–107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Cummings and P. Baldry, “Regional myofascial pain: diagnosis and management,” Best Practice and Research Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 367–387, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. T. S. Kuan, “Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome,” Current Pain and Headache Reports, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 365–369, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Kalichman and S. Vulfsons, “Dry needling in the management of musculoskeletal pain,” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 640–646, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Travell and A. L. Bobb, “Mechanism of relief of pain in sprains by local injection technics,” Federation Proceedings, vol. 6, article 378, 1947. View at Google Scholar
  21. C. Z. Hong, “Myofascial trigger point injection,” Critical Review of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 203–217, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. A. Fischer, “New approaches in treatment of myofascial pain,” Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 153–169, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. C. Gunn, W. E. Milbrandt, A. S. Little, and K. E. Mason, “Dry needling of muscle motor points for chronic low-back pain. A randomized clinical trial with long-term follow-up,” Spine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 279–291, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Chu, “Does EMG (dry needling) reduce myofascial pain symptoms due to cervical nerve root irritation?” Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 259–272, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Chu, D. V. Neuhauser, I. Schwartz, and H. H. Aye, “The efficacy of automated/electrical twitch obtaining intramuscular stimulation (atoims/etoims) for chronic pain control: evaluation with statistical process control methods,” Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 393–401, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Chu, K. F. Yuen, B. H. Wang, R. C. Chan, I. Schwartz, and D. Neuhauser, “Electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation in lower back pain: a pilot study,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 104–111, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Baldry, “Superficial dry needling at myofascial trigger point sites,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 117–126, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Baldry, “Superficial dry needling,” in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Practitioner's Guide to Treatment, C. L. Chaitow, Ed., Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh, UK, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Goddard, H. Karibe, C. McNeill, and E. Villafuerte, “Acupuncture and sham acupuncture reduce muscle pain in myofascial pain patients,” Journal of Orofacial Pain, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. A. Acquadro and G. E. Borodic, “Treatment of myofascial pain with botulinum A toxin,” Anesthesiology, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 705–706, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. W. P. Cheshire, S. W. Abashian, and J. D. Mann, “Botulinum toxin in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome,” Pain, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 65–69, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. Göbel, A. Heinze, G. Reichel, H. Hefter, and R. Benecke, “Efficacy and safety of a single botulinum type A toxin complex treatment (Dysport) for the relief of upper back myofascial pain syndrome: results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre study,” Pain, vol. 125, no. 1-2, pp. 82–88, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Soares, R. B. Andriolo, A. N. Atallah, and E. M. K. da Silva, “Botulinum toxin for myofascial pain syndromes in adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD007533, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. W. Chou, J. Y. Hong, and C. Z. Hong, “A new technique for acupuncture therapy and its effectiveness in treating fibromyalgia syndrome: a case report,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 193–198, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. W. Chou, Y. L. Hsieh, M. J. Kao, and C. Z. Hong, “Remote influences of acupuncture on the pain intensity and the amplitude changes of endplate noise in the myofascial trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 905–912, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. U. Unschuld, Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text, University of California Press, London, UK, 2003.
  37. P. U. Unschuld, H. Tessenow, and Z. Jinsheng, Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: An Annotated Translation of Huang Di's Inner Classic—Basic Questions, University of California Press, London, UK, 1st edition, 2011.
  38. J. G. Lin and W. L. Chen, “Acupuncture analgesia: a review of its mechanisms of actions,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 635–645, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. G. Lin and W. L. Chen, “Review: acupuncture analgesia in clinical trials,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. G. Lin and Y. H. Chen, “Acupuncture analgesia research and clinical practice in Taiwan,” in Acupuncture—Concepts and Physiology, M. Saad, Ed., chapter 11, pp. 175–200, InTech Open Access, Vienna, Austria, 2011, http://www.intechopen.com/books/acupuncture-concepts-and-physiology/acupuncture-analgesia-research-and-clinical-practice-in-taiwan. View at Google Scholar
  41. J. S. Han, “Acupuncture analgesia: areas of consensus and controversy,” Pain, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. S41–S48, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Research Group of Acupuncture Anesthesia BMC, “Effect of needling positions in acupuncture on pain threshold of human skin,” Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 3, pp. 151–157, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  43. B. Pomeranz and D. Chiu, “Naloxone blockade of acupuncture analgesia: endorphin implicated,” Life Sciences, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1757–1762, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Pomeranz, R. Cheng, and P. Law, “Acupuncture reduces electrophysiological and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli: pituitary is implicated,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 172–178, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. V. Clement-Jones, L. McLoughlin, and S. Tomlin, “Increased β-endorphin but not metenkephalin levels in human cerebrospinal fluid after acupuncture for recurrent pain,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8201, pp. 946–949, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. S. Han, G. X. Xie, Z. F. Zhou, R. Folkesson, and L. Terenius, “Enkephalin and beta-endorphin as mediators of electro-acupuncture analgesia in rabbits: an antiserum microinjection study,” Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, vol. 33, pp. 369–377, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. Mendelson, “The possible role of enkephalin in the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia in man,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 144–145, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Z. Han, Y. H. Jiang, Y. Wan, Y. Wang, J. K. Chang, and J. S. Han, “Endomorphin-1 mediates 2 Hz but not 100 Hz electroacupuncture analgesia in the rat,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 274, no. 2, pp. 75–78, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. S. Han, “Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. S. S. Cheng and B. Pomeranz, “Electroacupuncture analgesia could be mediated by at least two pain-relieving mechanisms; endorphin and non-endorphin systems,” Life Sciences, vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 1957–1962, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. X. H. Chen and J. S. Han, “Analgesia induced by electroacupuncture of different frequencies is mediated by different types of opioid receptors: another cross-tolerance study,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 143–149, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. G. Lin, T. Hao, X. H. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Intermittent-alternating mode of administering electroacupuncture stimulation postpones the development of electroacupuncture tolerance,” American Journal of Acupuncture, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. Lao, R. X. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, B. M. Berman, and K. Ren, “A parametric study of electroacupuncture on persistent hyperalgesia and Fos protein expression in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1020, no. 1-2, pp. 18–29, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. Y. Tsai, J. G. Lin, and R. Inoki, “Further evidence for possible analgesic mechanism of electroacupuncture: effects on neuropeptides and serotonergic neurons in rat spinal cord,” Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 181–185, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Takagi and N. Yonehara, “Serotonin receptor subtypes involved in modulation of electrical acupuncture,” Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 511–514, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. F. C. Chang, H. Y. Tsai, M. C. Yu, P. L. Yi, and J. G. Lin, “The central serotonergic system mediates the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on zusanli (ST36) acupoints,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 179–185, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. X. Liu, B. Zhu, and S. X. Zhang, “Relationship between electroacupuncture analgesia and descending pain inhibitory mechanism of nucleus raphe magnus,” Pain, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 383–396, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. Sekido, K. Ishimaru, and M. Sakita, “Differences of electroacupuncture-induced analgesic effect in normal and inflammatory conditions in rats,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 955–965, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. Huang, Z. P. Hu, H. Long, Y. S. Shi, J. S. Han, and Y. Wan, “Attenuation of mechanical but not thermal hyperalgesia by electroacupuncture with the involvement of opioids in rat model of chronic inflammatory pain,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 99–103, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. Hokfelt, “Neuropeptides in perspective: the last ten years,” Neuron, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 867–879, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. Stein, “The control of pain in peripheral tissue by opioids,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 332, no. 25, pp. 1685–1690, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K. J. Tracey, “The inflammatory reflex,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, pp. 853–859, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. L. Oke and K. J. Tracey, “The inflammatory reflex and the role of complementary and alternative medical therapies,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1172, pp. 172–180, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. Lewit, “The needle effect in the relief of myofascial pain,” Pain, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 83–90, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Chu, “Dry needling (intramuscular stimulation) in myofascial pain related to lumbosacral radiculopathy,” European Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 106–121, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. C. Gunn, Treatment of Chronic Pain: Intramuscular Stimulation for Myofascial Pain of Radiculopathic Origin, Churchill Livingston, London, UK, 1996.
  67. T. M. Cummings and A. R. White, “Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: a systematic review,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 986–992, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. A. Tough, A. R. White, T. M. Cummings, S. H. Richards, and J. L. Campbell, “Acupuncture and dry needling in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K. Itoh, Y. Katsumi, S. Hirota, and H. Kitakoji, “Randomised trial of trigger point acupuncture compared with other acupuncture for treatment of chronic neck pain,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 172–179, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Y. Sun, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Y. Cheng et al., “The therapeutic effects of acupuncture on patients with chronic neck myofascial pain syndrome: a single-blind randomized controlled trial,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 849–859, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. Z. Hong and Y. Torigoe, “Electrophysiological characteristics of localized twitch responses in responsive taut bands of rabbit skeletal muscle fibers,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 17–43, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. T. Chen, S. M. Chen, T. S. Kuan, K. C. Chung, and C. Z. Hong, “Phentolamine effect on the spontaneous electrical activity of active loci in a myofascial trigger spot of rabbit skeletal muscle,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 79, no. 7, pp. 790–794, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Y. L. Hsieh, M. J. Kao, T. S. Kuan, S. M. Chen, J. T. Chen, and C. Z. Hong, “Dry needling to a key myofascial trigger point may reduce the irritability of satellite MTrPs,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 397–403, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. P. Shah, “Uncovering the biochemical milieu of myofascial trigger points using in vivo microdialysis,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 17–20, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. P. Shah, J. V. Danoff, M. J. Desai et al., “Biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation are elevated in sites near to and remote from active myofascial trigger points,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. Melzack, “Myofascial trigger points: relation to acupuncture and mechanisms of pain,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 114–117, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. Z. Hong, “Myofascial trigger points: pathophysiology and correlation with acupuncture points,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. D. Gerwin, J. Dommerholt, and J. P. Shah, “An expansion of Simons' integrated hypothesis of trigger point formation,” Current pain and headache reports, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 468–475, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. S. Jimbo, Y. Atsuta, T. Kobayashi, and T. Matsuno, “Effects of dry needling at tender points for neck pain (Japanese: Katakori): near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscular oxygenation of the trapezius,” Journal of Orthopaedic Science, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 101–106, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. J. Cheng, “Neuroanatomical basis of acupuncture treatment for some common illnesses,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 61–64, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. K. J. Cheng, “Neuroanatomical characteristics of acupuncture points: relationship between their anatomical locations and traditional clinical indications,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 289–294, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. D. Irnich, N. Behrens, J. M. Gleditsch et al., “Immediate effects of dry needling and acupuncture at distant points in chronic neck pain: results of a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover trial,” Pain, vol. 99, no. 1-2, pp. 83–89, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. C. C. L. Xue, L. Dong, B. Polus et al., “Electroacupuncture for tension-type headache on distal acupoints only: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial,” Headache, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 333–341, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. T. Tsai, L. F. Hsieh, T. S. Kuan, M. J. Kao, L. W. Chou, and C. Z. Hong, “Remote effects of dry needling on the irritability of the myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. Matsubara, Y. C. P. Arai, Y. Shiro et al., “Comparative effects of acupressure at local and distal acupuncture points on pain conditions and autonomic function in females with chronic neck pain,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 543291, 6 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. Melzack, D. M. Stillwell, and J. Fox, “Trigger points and acupuncture points for pain: correlations and implications,” Pain, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3–23, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. Birch, “Trigger point-acupuncture point correlations revisited,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 91–103, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. T. Dorsher, “Trigger points and acupuncture points: anatomic and clinical correlations,” Medical Acupuncture, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 20–23, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  89. J. G. Travell and D. G. Simons, Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual, vol. 2, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1992.
  90. O. 'Connor J and D. Bensky, Acupuncture: A Comprehensive Text, Shanghai College of Traditional Medicine, Eastland Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1981.
  91. P. T. Dorsher, “Can classical acupuncture points and trigger points be compared in the treatment of pain disorders? Birch's analysis revisited,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 353–359, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. T. S. Kuan, Y. L. Hsieh, S. M. Chen, J. T. Chen, W. C. Yen, and C. Z. Hong, “The myofascial trigger point region: correlation between the degree of irritability and the prevalence of endplate noise,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 183–189, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. G. Simons, C. Z. Hong, and L. S. Simons, “Endplate potentials are common to midfiber myofacial trigger points,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 212–222, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. H. Y. Ge, C. Fernández-de-las-Peñas, and S. W. Yue, “Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation,” Chinese Medicine, vol. 6, article 13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. L. W. Chou, Y. L. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. Z. Hong, M. J. Kao, and T. I. Han, “Remote therapeutic effectiveness of acupuncture in treating myofascial trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 1036–1049, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. C. Z. Hong, Y. N. Chen, D. Twehous, and D. H. Hong, “Pressure threshold for referred pain by compression on the trigger point and adjacent areas,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 61–79, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. C. Z. Hong, T. S. Kuan, J. T. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “Referred pain elicited by palpation and by needling of myofascial trigger points: a comparison,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 957–960, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. U. Hoheisel, S. Mense, D. G. Simons, and X. M. Yu, “Appearance of new receptive fields in rat dorsal horn neurons following noxious stimulation of skeletal muscle: a model for referral of muscle pain?” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 9–12, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Mense, “Nociception from skeletal muscle in relation to clinical muscle pain,” Pain, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 241–289, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. Mense, D. G. Simons, U. Hoheisel, and B. Quenzer, “Lesions of rat skeletal muscle after local block of acetylcholinesterase and neuromuscular stimulation,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 2494–2501, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. Mense and D. G. Simons, Muscle Pain: Understanding Its Nature, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2001.
  102. K. A. Sluka, A. Kalra, and S. A. Moore, “Unilateral intramuscular injections of acidic saline produce a bilateral, long-lasting hyperalgesia,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. A. Sato, Y. Sato, and S. Uchida, “Reflex modulation of visceral functions by acupuncture-like stimulation in anesthetized rats,” International Congress Series, vol. 1238, pp. 111–123, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. Y. L. Hsieh, L. W. Chou, Y. S. Joe, and C. Z. Hong, “Spinal cord mechanism involving the remote effects of dry needling on the irritability of myofascial trigger spots in rabbit skeletal muscle,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 1098–1105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. S. L. Jones, “Descending noradrenergic influences on pain,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 88, pp. 381–394, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. C. Takeshige, T. Sato, T. Mera, T. Hisamitsu, and J. Fang, “Descending pain inhibitory system involved in acupuncture analgesia,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 617–634, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. Yoshimura and H. Furue, “Mechanisms for the anti-nociceptive actions of the descending noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in the spinal cord,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 107–117, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. C. Z. Hong, “Persistence of local twitch response with loss of conduction to and from the spinal cord,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. C. Z. Hong, “Lidocaine injection versus dry needling to myofascial trigger point: the importance of the local twitch response,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 256–263, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. C. Z. Hong, Y. Torigoe, and J. Yu, “The localized twitch responses in responsive taut bands of rabbit skeletal muscle fibers are related to the reflexes at spinal cord level,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 15–33, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. K. Murase and K. Kawakita, “Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in anti-nociception produced by acupuncture and moxibustion on trigeminal caudalis neurons in rats,” Japanese Journal of Physiology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 133–140, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. Reinert, R. D. Treede, and B. Bromm, “The pain inhibiting pain effect: an electrophysiological study in humans,” Brain Research, vol. 862, no. 1-2, pp. 103–110, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus