Table 3: Studies involving Pilates method in breast cancer survivors.

ReferenceIntervention (type/duration)Study design 𝑁 Main outcomesComments/results (group by time interactions reported for the controlled studies and time effects for non-controlled studies)

Stan et al. [73], 2012Mat Pilates
12 weeks, 45′ sessions, 3–5x/week
One arm 15
All had mastectomy
Shoulder ROM
Spine flexibility
Arm volumes
Mood (POMS)
Body image (MBSRQ)
Improved shoulder abduction and internal rotation *  
Improved neck flexion and rotation towards the unaffected side*  
No difference in spine flexibility and height
Increased arm volume  of  the affected compared to the unaffected side (subclinical lymphedema in 6 patients)*  
Improved QOL and certain scales of mood and body image*

Eyigor et al.
[74], 2010
Mat Pilates plus home exercise (walking, stretching, and ROM) versus home exercises
8 weeks, 60′ sessions, 3x/week
All had mastectomy
Aerobic capacity (6MWT)
Flexibility (modified sit and reach test)
Fatigue (BFI)
Depression (BDI)
QOL (EORTC-QLQ-C30 and B23)
Improved aerobic capacity *  
No difference in the other outcomes

6MWT: 6-Minute Walk Test; BFI: Brief fatigue Inventory; BDI: Beck Depression Index; BPI: Brief Pain Inventory; EORTC-QLQ-C30: European Organization for Research and Treatment Cancer-Quality of Life; FACT-B: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapies-Breast; MBSRQ: Multidimensional Body-Self-Relations Questionnaire; POMS: Profile of Mood States-Short Form; UE: Upper Extremity; bold text with*: statistically significant ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ).