Figure 10: The mRNA expression levels of inducible inflammatory enzymes, (a) COX-2 and (b) iNOS, in the colorectum (Experiment 2) as determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Crocin treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of COX-2 (50, 100, and 200 ppm) and iNOS (200 ppm), when compared with the AOM and DSS group. The expression was normalized to the β-actin mRNA expression. Samples were analyzed in triplicate. Data are the means ± SD from three independent assays ( from each group). The ordinates show the relative mRNA expression (/β-actin) versus the 1.5% DSS group. * , ** versus the 1.5% DSS group.