Table 2: Screening of Chinese herbal medicines for agonistic activity towards PPARα and PPARγ and inhibition of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity in vitro. PE = petroleum ether, EtOAc = ethyl acetate, MeOH = methanol. Dry material from all test samples was dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and tested at a final concentration of 10 μg/mL. Regarding PPARs: no activation compared to control (0.1% DMSO): −; 1.5- to 2-fold activity compared to control ( ): +; more than 2-fold of the control ( ): ++. Regarding NF-κB: inhibition in the range of 0–50% compared to the vehicle-treated control (0.1% DMSO): −; 50–80% inhibition ( ): +; over 80% inhibition ( ): ++. At least three independent experiments were performed with every sample, and statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA.

Plant speciesCHM no.ExtractPPARαPPARγNF-κB
activationactivationinhibition

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.1aPE+++++
EtOAc+++++
MeOH+++
H2O+
1bPE++
EtOAc+++++
MeOH
H2O++

Arisaema sp.2aPE++++
EtOAc
MeOH
H2O

Arnebia/Lithospermum sp.3PE
EtOAc
MeOH
H2O

Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.4PE
EtOAc
MeOH
H2O

Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss.5PE
EtOAc++++
MeOH
H2O

Dimocarpus (Euphoria) longan Lour.6PE
EtOAc
MeOH
H2O

Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl.7PE+
EtOAc++
MeOH
H2O

Juncus effusus L.8EtOAc++
MeOH+
H2O

Lilium sp.9EtOAc+
MeOH
H2O

Lophatherum gracile Brongn.10PE+
EtOAc+
MeOH
H2O

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.11PE
EtOAc
MeOH
H2O

Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit.12bPE++++
EtOAc
MeOH
H2O

Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.13PE
EtOAc
MeOH
H2O

Tribulus terrestris L.14PE
EtOAc++
MeOH
H2O