Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Standardized versus Individualized Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Table 2

Primary and secondary outcomes at 8 and 26 weeks (adjusted for baseline value and participant’s expectation)*.

Standardized acupuncture mean (95% CI)Individualized acupuncture mean (95% CI)Differences individualized versus standardized acupuncture (95% CI) value

Overall low back pain—area under the curve** 
(sum of daily VAS ): week 1 to 8µ
1,482.9
(1,177.2; 1,788.7)
1,768.7
(1,460.4; 2,077.1)
285.8
(−33.9; 605.5)
0.080
Mean overall low back pain: (mean daily VAS ):
weeks 1 to 8µ
26.5 (21.0; 31.9)31.6 (26.1; 37.1)5.1 (−0.6; 10.8)0.080
Days with pain medication: weeks 1 to 8µ4.9 (0.4; 9.3)5.6 (1.2; 10.0)0.7 (−3.9; 5.4)0.752
Days with physiotherapy: weeks 1 to 8µ2.1 (0.1; 4.0)1.9 (0.01; 3.8)−0.2 (−2.2; 1.8)0.867
Number of acupuncture therapy sessions 9.8 (8.4; 11.2) 10.3 (8.9; 11.7)0.5 (−0.3; 1.3)0.226
Duration of therapy (minutes per week)41.1 (30.7; 51.5)44.4 (34.4; 54.4)3.3 (−2.6; 9.3)0.272
Average low back pain during the previous 7 days (VAS )
 8 weeks27.4 (21.2; 33.7)28.7 (23.4; 34.0)1.3 (−5.8; 8.4)0.723
 26 weeks27.3 (21.0; 33.7)30.5 (24.6; 36.3)3.1 (−4.5; 10.8)0.424
Low back pain/disability (HFAQ#)
 8 weeks25.8 (21.9; 29.6)27.5 (22.8; 32.1)1.7 (−3.4; 6.8)0.513
 26 weeks24.3 (20.4; 28.3)25.9 (21.0; 30.8)1.5 (−3.7; 6.8)0.569
SF-36 quality of life (SF-36#)
 Physical health at 8 weeks42.7 (40.3; 45.1)42.1 (40.1; 44.1)−0.5 (−3.5; 2.4)0.714
 Physical health at 26 weeks43.1 (40.7; 45.5)41.7 (39.5; 43.8)−1.5 (−4.5; 1.6)0.343
 Mental health at 8 weeks49.5 (47.0; 52.1)50.0 (47.4; 52.6)0.4 (−2.7; 3.6)0.788
 Mental health at 26 weeks48.8 (46.1; 51.6)50.7 (47.9; 53.5)1.9 (−1.6; 5.4)0.287
Sick leave days
 8 weeks4.8 (1.8; 7.8)4.5 (1.5; 7.4)−0.3 (−3.4; 2.8)0.843
 26 weeks (previous 4 months)9.0 (3.6; 14.4)9.7 (4.1; 15.2)0.6 (−4.8; 6.0)0.817

VAS: visual analogue scale for assessing the average low back pain intensity; HFAQ: Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire; SF-36: 36-item quality-of-life questionnaire.
*The area under the curve was evaluated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) including treatment group, with baseline value and participants’ initial expectation from treatment as covariates. Secondary outcome parameters were analysed by similar ANCOVA or generalized estimating equation (GEE) models in a similar fashion.
µBased on daily data from a diary.
Lower values indicate better status.
#Higher values indicate better status.
**The area under the curve (AUC) represents the sum of daily VAS scores (0–100) over 8 weeks.

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