Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Effects of Qigong on Depression: A Systemic Review

Table 1

Two studies investigating the effects of Qigong on depression as primary and eight studies as secondary outcomes.

Author
Year
Country
Design BlindingSample sizeSubject
Mean age
Sex (m/f)
Intervention
control
Outcome measure
Followup
Analysis
Result
Dropout
Adverse event Conclusion and discussion

Tsang et al. [23]
2003
Hong
Kong
RCT
Non-blinding
Total ( )
Intervention
( )
Control ( )
Geriatric patients
74
(26/24)
Eight-section brocades Qigong
 (a) 12 weeks
 (b) 60 minutes
 (c) 6 visits
 (d) 2x/week
Traditional remedial rehabilitation activities
(1) Geriatric Depression Scale
(2) Perceived Benefit Questionnaire
(3) Hong Kong Chinese Version World Health Organization Quality of Life
(4) Self-concept Scale
No follow-up
(1) NS
(2)
(3) NS


(4) NS

n/a
Not reportedEight section brocades Qigong is promising as an alternative psychosocial intervention for depressed elderly with chronic physical illness. Although there is no evidence, there is an optimistic stance that Qigong results in better treatment compliance and better outcome compared to Western exercise protocols like aerobics

Astin et al. [29]
2003
USA
RCT
Non-blinding
Total ( )
Intervention
( )
Control ( )
Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome
48
(1/127)
Mindfulness meditation with Qigong movement therapy
  (a) 8 weeks
  (b) 150 minutes (90 min mindfulness, 60 min Qigong)
 (c) 8 visits
  (d) 1x/week
Education support group
(1) Pain measured with 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey  
(2) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire
(3) Beck Depression Inventory
(4) Myalgic score
(5) Coping strategies
Follow-up
 (a) Week 4
 (b) Week 24
Completers analysis
(1) NS
(2) NS

(3) NS
(4) NS
(5) NS

49%
Not reportedBoth intervention and control groups showed improvement on a number of outcome variables, however, no evidence showed that the mindfulness meditation and Qigong intervention for fibromyalgia was superior to education support group.

Kim et al. [24]
2004
Korea
RCT
Non-blinding
Total ( )
Intervention ( )
Control ( )
Female college students
19–21
(0/54)
Meridian exercise
  (a) 6 weeks
  (b) 30 minutes
  (c) 12 visits
  (d) 2x/week
Standard care only
(1) State Anxiety Inventory
(2) Depression Status Inventory
(3) Self-Esteem Inventory
No followup:
ITT analyses
(1)
(2)
(3)
n/a
Not reportedMeridian exercise decreased anxiety and depression and increased self-esteem. Study suggests that meridian exercise enabled female students to manage their mental health within the community. Future studies are needed to examine the lasting effect of the intervention, including physiological indices

Cheung et al. [27]
2005
Hong Kong
RCT
Non-blinding
Total ( )
Intervention ( )
Control ( )
Patients with essential hypertension
54
(37/51)
Guolin Qigong
 (a) 4 weeks
 (b) 120 minutes
 (c) 8 visits
 (d) 2x/week
Conventional exercise
(1) Blood pressure
(2) 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey
(3) Beck Anxiety Inventory
(4) Beck Depression Inventory
No followup
ITT analyses
(1) NS
(2) NS
(3) NS
(4) NS


16.5%
Vestibular neuronitis, unrelated to Qigong practiceGoulin Qigong and conventional exercise had similar effects on blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. While no additional benefits were identified, Qigong treatment serves as a nondrug alternative to conventional exercise in the treatment of hypertension

Tsang et al. [13]
2006
Hong
Kong
RCT
Single blind
Total ( )
Intervention
( )
Control ( )
Geriatric patients
82
(16/66)
Baduanjin Qigong
 (a) 16 weeks
 (b) 30–45 minutes
 (c) 48 visits
 (d) 3x/week
Newspaper reading
(1) Geriatric Depression
Scale
(2) Chinese General Self-Efficacy Scale
(3) Personal Well-Being Index
(4) General Health Questionnaire-12
(5) Self-Concept Scale
(6) Perceived Benefit Questionnaire
Followup:
  (a) Week 4
  (b) Week 8
(1)
(2)

(3)
  (4)

(5) Subscales significant
(6)

15.8%
Not reportedRegular Qigong practice could reduce depression, and improve self-efficacy and personal well-being among geriatric patients with chronic physical illness and depression. Study shows that practice needs to continue and last for long-term effects

Schmitz-H bsch et al. [30]
2006
Germany
RCT
Non-blinding
Pilot study
Total ( )
Intervention ( )
Control ( )
Patients with Parkinson's Disease
63
(43/13)
Qigong (frolic of the crane, eight-section brocades in sitting position)
 (a) 24 weeks (8-week intervention, 8-week no intervention, 8-week intervention)
 (b) 90 minutes
 (c) 16 visits
 (d) 1x/week
No intervention
(1) Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor
(2) Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire
(3) Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scale
Followup:
  (a) 12 months
ITT analyses
(1)
(2) NS

(3) NS



12.5%
Not reportedResults suggest positive effects of Qigong on symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Given high acceptance and compliance with therapy, Qigong is a promising treatment with possible effects on motor as well as nonmotor symptoms. Group instruction, as well as self-exercise of Qigong, moreover serves as cost-effective application

Johansson et al. [25]
2008
Sweden
RCT
Non-blinding
Total ( )
Intervention ( )
Control ( )
Summer school camp participants
51
(8/51)
Jichu Gong
 (a) 4-day retreat
Lecture on Chinese medicine
(1) Profile of Mood Status
(2) State and Trait Anxiety Inventory
No followup
Completers analyses
(1)
(2)
3%
Not reportedStudy supports the effectiveness of Qigong to promote mental health. More studies are necessary to verify the finding

Oh et al. [26]
2009
Australia
RCT
Non-blinding
Total ( )
Intervention ( )
Control ( )
Cancer patients
60
(69/93)
Medical Qigong + standard care
 (a) 12 weeks
 (b) 90 minutes
 (c) 12 visits
 (d) 1x/week
Standard care only
(1) Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General
(2) Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue
(3) Profile of Mood Status
(4) Inflammation (CRP)
No followup
ITT analyses
(1)
(2)
(3)   (mood disturbance)
(depression)
(4)
24%
Reported no adverse eventMedical Qigong can improve cancer patients overall quality of life and mood status as well as reduce specific side effects of cancer treatment. Qigong treatment may also produce long-term physical benefits due to reduction of CRP inflammation

Stenlund et. al. [31]
2009
Sweden
RCT
Non-blinding
Total ( )
Intervention
( )
Control ( )
Patients with burnout
Qigong + basic care
 (a) 12 weeks
 (b) 60 minutes
 (c) 12 visits
 (d) 1x/week
Basic care at the stress clinic
(1) Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire
(2) 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (Swedish)
(3) Self-Concept Questionnaire
(4) Checklist Individual Strength Questionnaire
(5) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
(6) Physical Assessment Scale of the Relaxation Inventory
No followup
ITT analyses
Completers analyses
(1) NS
(2) NS

(3) NS
(4) NS

(5) NS

(6) NS

17%
Not reported12-week intervention of Qigong had no additional benefit compared to basic care in burnout patients