Figure 7: Effect of propolis extract on CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus. The no FST (naive) group served as the control group. (a) Representative western blot images showing the expression of pCREB, CREB, and β-actin in hippocampal lysates. Average band intensity of (b) CREB and (c) pCREB/CREB ratio. CREB and pCREB protein were normalized by β-actin and CREB, respectively. The columns and error bars represent means ± SEM ( per group). Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. P200, propolis extract (200 mg/kg). versus naive; versus vehicle. (d) Correlation between the pCREB/CREB and pGR(S220)/(S234) ratio. The lines represent the linear data fit. Pearson’s correlation coefficient ( ) is shown above the plot ( ). (e) Representative immunofluorescence images of pCREB in the hippocampal DG. Frozen hippocampal sections were triple-immunostained with anti-pCREB (green) and anti-NeuN (red) followed by DraQ (blue) nuclear counterstaining. It is apparent that pCREB protein is enriched in the nucleus of cells in the DG region. Scale bar = 10 μm. GCL: granular cell layer; SGZ: subgranular zone.