Table 2: Additional details of the included RCTs.

StudyLocation (country)Age (mean or range)DurationGestational weekInclusionExclusion

Yang et al. [16]China20–36 y1-2 wk30–36 wkMeet the diagnostic criteria, 30 to 34 wk, informed consent, and voluntary acceptance of the experimentComplicated with pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, merging genital tumor, contracted pelvis, polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios, cord around neck, and fetal biparietal diameter >8 cm, before placenta attach to uterine wall

Cardini and Weixin [17]ChinaT:  y 
C:  y
1 wk33 wkNormal fetal biometry (biparietal and abdominal circumference between percentiles 10 and 90)Pelvic anomalies, previous uterine surgery, pregnancy-related illness, fetal malformation, twin pregnancy, fibroma > 4 cm, uterine malformation, risk of premature delivery (hypercontractility, Bishop 4 or greater), and tocolysis during pregnancy

Cardini et al. [18]ItalyT: 31 y
C: 26.2 y
1-2 wk32-33 wk plus 3 dNormal fetal biometryNonacceptance of randomization, pelvic anomalies, previous uterine surgery, fetal malformation, uterine malformation, fibroma > 4 cm, twin pregnancy, previous or current tocolysis, and other pregnancy-related complications

Do et al. [19]AustraliaT:  y
C:  y
10 d34–36.5 wkWomen were aged greater than 18 years, at 34–36.5 wk of gestation with a singleton breech presentation (confirmed by ultrasound), and normal fetal biometryTwin pregnancy, risk of premature birth, heart or kidney diseases affecting the mother, placenta previa, history of antepartum haemorrhage, intrauterine growth restriction, hypertensive disease, isoimmunisation, previous uterine operations, uterine anomaly, prelabour rupture of the membranes, multiple pregnancy, fetal congenital abnormality, contraindication to vaginal delivery, and fetal death in utero

Guittier et al. [20]SwitzerlandT:  y
C:  y
2 wkT:  wk
C:  wk
Single fetus in breech presentation between 34 and 36 wk of gestation Uterine malformation, placenta praevia, and transverse lie

Vas et al. [21]SpainT: 22.6–39.0 y
C: 24.0–38.3 y
S: 24.4–38.0 y
2 wk33–35 wkDiagnosed by physical examination and ultrasound; at least 18 years; 33–35 wk of gestation (confirmed by ultrasound); normal fetal biometry and no prior treatment with moxibustion to achieve version of the fetusMultiple pregnancy, bone pelvic defects, previous uterine surgery, fetal malformation or chromosomal disorder, uterine malformations, risk of preterm birth (preterm uterine contractions and/or initial dilatation or shortening of the cervix with a score of 4 on the Bishop scale), uterine fibroids >4 cm, tocolytic therapy, and maternal heart or kidney disease

Yang [22]ChinaT: 26–28 y
C: 25–27 y
7 d28–32 wkNot statedNot stated

T: treatment group, C: control group, S: sham group, y: year, wk: week, d: day.