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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 260806, 10 pages
Research Article

Neuromuscular Damage and Repair after Dry Needling in Mice

1Unit of Histology and Neurobiology, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rovira i Virgili University, Carrer St. Llorenç No. 21, 43201 Reus, Spain
2Physical Therapy Unit, Hospital Provincial de Toledo, Cerro de San Servando s/n, 45006 Toledo, Spain
3Unit of Physiotherapy, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rovira i Virgili University, Carrer St. Llorenç No. 21, 43201 Reus, Spain

Received 21 December 2012; Revised 23 February 2013; Accepted 12 March 2013

Academic Editor: José M. Climent Barberá

Copyright © 2013 Ares Domingo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. Some dry needling treatments involve repetitive and rapid needle insertions into myofascial trigger points. This type of treatment causes muscle injury and can also damage nerve fibers. The aim of this study is to determine the injury caused by 15 repetitive punctures in the muscle and the intramuscular nerves in healthy mouse muscle and its ulterior regeneration. Methods. We repeatedly needled the levator auris longus muscle of mice, and then the muscles were processed with immunohistochemistry, methylene blue, and electron microscopy techniques. Results. Three hours after the dry needling procedure, the muscle fibers showed some signs of an inflammatory response, which progressed to greater intensity 24 hours after the procedure. Some inflammatory cells could still be seen when the muscle regeneration was almost complete seven days after the treatment. One day after the treatment, some changes in the distribution of receptors could be observed in the denervated postsynaptic component. Reinnervation was complete by the third day after the dry needling procedure. We also saw very fine axonal branches reinnervating all the postsynaptic components and some residual sprouts the same day. Conclusion. Repeated dry needling punctures in muscle do not perturb the different stages of muscle regeneration and reinnervation.