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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 267217, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/267217
Research Article

Inhibitive Effects of Mulberry Leaf-Related Extracts on Cell Adhesion and Inflammatory Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

1Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
3Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
4Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 106, Taiwan

Received 2 August 2013; Revised 5 November 2013; Accepted 5 November 2013

Academic Editor: Joen-Rong Sheu

Copyright © 2013 P.-Y. Chao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts (MLREs) on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and on inflammatory signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were studied. The tested MLREs were rich in flavonols, especially bombyx faces tea (BT) in quercetin and kaempferol. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanidin also abounded in BT. The best trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was generated from the acidic methanolic extracts of BT. Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT), mulberry leaf (M), and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group. TNF-α-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly suppressed by MLREs. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression was significantly reduced by BT and MT. Significant reductions were also observed in both NF-κB and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding by MLREs. Significant increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ DNA binding by MLREs were also detected in M and MT extracts, but no evidence for PPAR α DNA binding in 50 μg/mL MT extract was found. Apparently, MLREs can provide distinct cytoprotective mechanisms that may contribute to its putative beneficial effects on suppressing endothelial responses to cytokines during inflammation.