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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 306705, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/306705
Research Article

The Inhibitory Effect of Ellagic Acid on Cell Growth of Ovarian Carcinoma Cells

1Department of Surgery, Cheng-Ching Hospital, Chung-Kang Branch, No. 118, Section 3, Chung Kang Road, Taichung City 40764, Taiwan
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taoyuan General Hospital, Department of Health, No. 1492, Chung-Shan Road, Taoyuan City 33004, Taiwan
3Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, No. 306 Yuanpei Street, Hsinchu City 30015, Taiwan

Received 11 March 2013; Revised 30 May 2013; Accepted 31 May 2013

Academic Editor: Ken Yasukawa

Copyright © 2013 Yuan-Chiang Chung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ellagic acid (EA) is able to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells; however, its effect on human ovarian carcinoma cells has not yet been investigated. Ovarian carcinoma ES-2 and PA-1 cells were treated with EA (10~100 μM) and assessed for viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, anoikis, autophagy, and chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and their molecular mechanisms. EA inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner by arresting both cell lines at the G1 phase of the cell cycle, which were from elevating p53 and Cip1/p21 and decreasing cyclin D1 and E levels. EA also induced caspase-3-mediated apoptosis by increasing the Bax : Bcl-2 ratio and restored anoikis in both cell lines. The enhancement of apoptosis and/or inhibition of autophagy in these cells by EA assisted the chemotherapy efficacy. The results indicated that EA is a potential novel chemoprevention and treatment assistant agent for human ovarian carcinoma.