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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 413808, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/413808
Review Article

Amyloidosis in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Toxicity of Amyloid Beta (Aβ), Mechanisms of Its Accumulation and Implications of Medicinal Plants for Therapy

1Ph.D. Program in Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2Center for Excellence in Omics-Nano Medical Technology Development Project, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, 154 Rama I Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Received 9 November 2012; Revised 10 April 2013; Accepted 22 April 2013

Academic Editor: Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur

Copyright © 2013 Anchalee Prasansuklab and Tewin Tencomnao. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory deficits and death. While the number of individuals with AD is rising each year due to the longer life expectancy worldwide, current therapy can only somewhat relieve the symptoms of AD. There is no proven medication to cure or prevent the disease, possibly due to a lack of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis. Most previous studies have accepted the “amyloid hypothesis,” in which the neuropathogenesis of AD is believed to be triggered by the accumulation of the toxic amyloid beta (Aβ) protein in the central nervous system (CNS). Lately, knowledge that may be critical to unraveling the hidden pathogenic pathway of AD has been revealed. This review concentrates on the toxicity of Aβ and the mechanism of accumulation of this toxic protein in the brain of individuals with AD and also summarizes recent advances in the study of these accumulation mechanisms together with the role of herbal medicines that could facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic and preventive strategies.