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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 457971, 11 pages
Research Article

Hyperglycemia Induces Altered Expressions of Angiogenesis Associated Molecules in the Trophoblast

1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsin Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
2The Ph.D. Program for Translational Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and Academia Sinica, 250 Wu-Hsin Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
3Center for Reproductive Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 252 Wu-Hsin Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
4Center for Translational Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsin Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan

Received 9 April 2013; Revised 26 June 2013; Accepted 29 June 2013

Academic Editor: Wen-Chin Yang

Copyright © 2013 Shu-Chun Chang and Wei-Chung Vivian Yang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We previously reported that the increased level of perlecan with altered glycosaminoglycan (GAG) substitution was present in the placenta with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and in the trophoblasts cultured under hyperglycemic condition. Trophoblast is the first cell lineage to differentiate, invasive, and migrate into the vessel tissues of placenta and fetal membrane during pregnancy. Therefore, active matrix remodeling and vessel formation must occur during placentation. In this study, we further investigated whether hyperglycemia-induced alterations of perlecan in the extracellular matrix (ECM) affect the proliferation and the expressions of angiogenesis-related growth factors and cytokines in the trophoblasts. 3A-Sub-E trophoblastic cells cultured in high glucose medium were conducted to mimic the hyperglycemic condition. Results showed that the hyperglycemia-induced GAG alterations in the cell surface perlecan as well as in the ECM indeed upregulated the expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 and the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and downregulated the expressions of TIMP-2. A regulatory molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced alterations of the cell surface proteoglycans and the ECM remodeling on the expressions of angiogenesis-related cytokines and growth factors in trophoblasts was proposed. This mechanism may contribute to the aberrant placental structure and the maternal and fetal complications during development.