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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 479718, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/479718
Research Article

The Effectiveness and Mechanism of Toona sinensis Extract Inhibit Attachment of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus

1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
2Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
3Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
4Department of Chinese Medicine and Mitochondrial Research Unit, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
5Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan

Received 23 April 2013; Revised 13 July 2013; Accepted 23 July 2013

Academic Editor: Wen Chuan Lin

Copyright © 2013 Huey-Ling You et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

TSL-1 is a fraction of the aqueous extract from the tender leaf of Toona sinensis Roem, a nutritious vegetable. The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus is a recently described, rapidly contagious respiratory pathogen which can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and poses a major public health threat. In this study, we found that TSL-1 inhibited viral yields on MDCK plaque formation by pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus on infected A549 cells with high selectivity index. Meanwhile, TSL-1 also suppressed viral genome loads in infected A549 cells, quantified by qRT-PCR. This study further demonstrated that TSL-1 inhibited pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus activity through preventing attachment of A549 cells but not penetration. TSL-1 inhibited viral attachment through significant downregulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, IL-8, and fractalkine) compared to Amantadine. Our results suggest that TSL-1 may be used as an alternative treatment and prophylaxis against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.