Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 482947, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/482947
Research Article

Long-Term Stimulation with Electroacupuncture at DU20 and ST36 Rescues Hippocampal Neuron through Attenuating Cerebral Blood Flow in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

1School of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
2Dongzhimen Hospital Affiliated to Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 101121, China
3Tasly Microcirculation Research Center, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
4Key Laboratory of Microcirculation, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100191, China
5Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
6Department of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China

Received 24 January 2013; Revised 10 March 2013; Accepted 14 March 2013

Academic Editor: Lixing Lao

Copyright © 2013 Gui-Hua Tian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Düsing, “Optimizing blood pressure control through the use of fixed combinations,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 6, pp. 321–325, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Cohuet and H. Struijker-Boudier, “Mechanisms of target organ damage caused by hypertension: therapeutic potential,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 81–98, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, S. Inch, and P. A. Shering, “Blood pressure and cognitive function in healthy old people,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 753–756, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. B. Posner, M. X. Tang, J. Luchsinger, R. Lantigua, Y. Stern, and R. Mayeux, “The relationship of hypertension in the elderly to AD, vascular dementia, and cognitive function,” Neurology, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 1175–1181, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. O. Hanon, M. L. Seux, H. Lenoir, A. S. Rigaud, and F. Forette, “Hypertension and dementia,” Current Cardiology Reports, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 435–440, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. W. Zhang, K. C. Ma, O. Andersen, P. Sourander, P. O. Tollesson, and Y. Olsson, “The microvascular changes in cases of hereditary multi-infarct disease of the brain,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 317–324, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. B. Ringelstein and D. G. Nabavi, “Cerebral small vessel diseases: cerebral microangiopathies,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 179–188, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. M. Zhu, H. Li, R. J. Jin et al., “Effects of electroacupuncture combined psycho-intervention on cognitive function and event-related potentials p300 and mismatch negativity in patients with internet addiction,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 146–151, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. D. Kim, A. M. Pica, R. G. Durán, and W. N. Durán, “Acupuncture reduces experimental renovascular hypertension through mechanisms involving nitric oxide synthases,” Microcirculation, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 577–585, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. K. Hwang, J. Y. Chung, D. Y. Yoo et al., “Effects of electroacupuncture at zusanli and baihui on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal dentate gyrus,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 1431–1436, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Okamoto and K. Aoki, “Development of a strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Japanese circulation journal, vol. 27, pp. 282–293, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Zhang, D. Ng, and A. Sau, “Effects of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points on blood pressure,” Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. S. Kim, C. Kim, M. Kang, J. Yoo, and Y. Huh, “Electroacupuncture-related changes of NADPH-diaphorase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the brainstem of spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 312, no. 2, pp. 63–66, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. O. H. Lee, K. I. Kim, C. K. Han, Y. C. Kim, and H. D. Hong, “Effects of acidic polysaccharides from gastrodia rhizome on systolic blood pressure and serum lipid concentrations in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high-fat diet,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 698–709, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. Y. Liu, Z. Ye, H. Yang et al., “Disturbances of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins in hippocampal synaptosomes contribute to cognitive impairment after repetitive formaldehyde inhalation in male rats,” Neuroscience, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 1248–1254, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Zhao, Y. Y. Liu, F. Wang et al., “Cardiotonic pills, a compound Chinese medicine, protects ischemia-reperfusion-induced microcirculatory disturbance and myocardial damage in rats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 298, no. 4, pp. H1166–H1176, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Sun, Q. Hu, C. M. Zhou et al., “Cerebralcare Granule®, a Chinese herb compound preparation, improves cerebral microcirculatory disorder and hippocampal CA1 neuron injury in gerbils after ischemia-reperfusion,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 398–406, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. X. Chen, C. Zhou, J. Guo et al., “Effects of dihydroxylphenyl lactic acid on inflammatory responses in spinal cord injury,” Brain Research, vol. 1372, pp. 160–168, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. I. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. K. Kang et al., “Electroacupuncture decreases nitric oxide synthesis in the hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 446, no. 2-3, pp. 78–82, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. X. Zhang, Q. Wang, L. Zhou et al., “Effects of scalp acupuncture on acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats,” Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 769–774, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. A. J. Struijker Boudier, “Microcirculation in hypertension,” European Heart Journal, vol. 1, supplement L, pp. L32–L37, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  22. B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. J. Struijker-Boudier, “Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment?” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 735–740, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. M. Saavedra, “Brain angiotensin II: new developments, unanswered questions and therapeutic opportunities,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 25, no. 3-4, pp. 485–512, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. L. Haberl, P. J. Decker-Hermann, and K. Hermann, “Effect of renin on brain arterioles and cerebral blood flow in rabbits,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 714–719, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Powers, L. Greene, and L. M. Balfe, “Updates on the treatment of essential hypertension: a summary of ahrq's comparative effectiveness review of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin ii receptor blockers, and direct renin inhibitors,” Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, vol. 17, no. 8, supplement, pp. S1–S14, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  26. A. Tajima, F. J. Hans, D. Livingstone et al., “Smaller local brain volumes and cerebral atrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 105–111, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Sabbatini, P. Strocchi, L. Vitaioli, and F. Amenta, “The hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a quantitative microanatomical study,” Neuroscience, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 251–258, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Okano and C. Ohkubo, “Exposure to a moderate intensity static magnetic field enhances the hypotensive effect of a calcium channel blocker in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 611–623, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Okamoto, K. Yamamoto, N. Morita et al., “Establishment and use of the M strain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. S21–S24, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Kato, T. Nabika, Y. Q. Liang et al., “Isolation of a chromosome 1 region affecting blood pressure and vascular disease traits in the stroke-prone rat model,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1191–1197, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Naveri, C. Stromberg, and J. M. Saavedra, “Angiotensin II AT1 receptor mediated contraction of the perfused rat cerebral artery,” NeuroReport, vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 2278–2280, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Q. Xie and C. Nathan, “The high-output nitric oxide pathway: role and regulation,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 56, pp. 576–582, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  33. J. Johansson, L. Mannerås-Holm, R. Shao et al., “Electrical versus manual acupuncture stimulation in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: different effects on muscle and fat tissue insulin signaling,” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 1, article e54357, 2013. View at Google Scholar