Table 3: A comparison of the electrophysiological characteristics between primo nodes, primo vessels, neurons, and muscle cells.

RP (mV)APD (mV)Drug-responsiveReference

Neuron−701Y[19]
Muscle
 Skeletal−80 to −902 to 5Y[20]
 Cardiac−85 to −95200 to 400Y[21]
 Smooth−50 to −6010 to 50Y[22]
Primo node
 Skin0.1Y[25]
 Surface of a small intestine −39.9 to 15.5 1.2 to 0.6Y[37]
 Surface of a small intestine −36.6 to 1.38Y[43]
Primo vessel
 Skin0.1Y[25]
 Surface of a small intestine −10 to 4.720
40
[44]
 Surface of a small intestineA: −13.1 to 0.7B: −38.6 to 3.0Y[43]
 Surface of a small intestineA: 10.0 to 8.4B: 13.7 to 8.7[45]

RP: resting potential; TP: threshold potential; APD: action potential duration (bioelectrical activity).