Figure 5: Bcl-2 expression and caspase protease activity in 6-shogaol-involved cell protection. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to 10, 30 μM 6-shogaol, 200 μg/mL oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and a combination of 6-shogaol and oxLDL. (a) Bcl-2 protein expression were quantified and analyzed. (b, c, d) the activities of caspases-9, -3, and -8 were, respectively, analyzed by fluorogenic assays using LEHD (Leu-Glu-His-Asp), DEVD (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp), and VEID (Val-Glu-Ile-Asp) as the substrate (D–F). Each value represents the mean ± s.e.m. for . The symbols * and #, respectively, indicate that the values significantly differ from the control and oxLDL-treated groups, .