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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 514719, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/514719
Research Article

Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Leaves Induces Autophagy and Enhances Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, Docetaxel, and 5-Fluorouracil in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

1Department of Chinese Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
5Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chi Mei Hospital Chiali, Tainan 72263, Taiwan
6Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
8Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University and Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
9Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
10Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan

Received 14 March 2013; Revised 15 May 2013; Accepted 22 May 2013

Academic Editor: Jing Hua Wang

Copyright © 2013 Chen-Jei Tai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer is a common cancer worldwide, and chemotherapy is a mainstream approach for advanced and recurrent cases. Development of effective complementary drugs could help improve tumor suppression efficiency and control adverse effects from chemotherapy. The aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AE-SN) is an essential component in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas for treating cancer, but there is a lack of evidence verifying its tumor suppression efficacy in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tumor suppression efficacy of AE-SN using DLD-1 and HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells and examine the combined drug effect when combined with the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and 5-fluorouracil. The results indicated that AE-SN induced autophagy via microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 A/B II accumulation but not caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in both cell lines. The IC50s after 48 hours of treatment were 0.541 and 0.948 mg/ml AE-SN in DLD-1 and HT-29, respectively. AE-SN also demonstrated a combined drug effect with all tested drugs by enhancing cytotoxicity in tumor cells. Our results suggest that AE-SN has potential in the development of complementary chemotherapy for colorectal cancer.