Table 4: Summary of acupuncture effects on neurotrophins, IgE and eosinophils.
(a) Neurotrophins: biphasic action depending on disease and model

DiseaseModelReported effectReference

Parkinson’s diseaseRodentUpregulates BDNF in substantia nigra[86]
Retinitis pigmentosaRodentUpregulates NGF and BDNF in retina[87]
Spinal cord injuryFelineUpregulates NGF in spine[88]
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)RodentDownregulates NGF in ovaries[7476]

(b) Serum IgE: contradictory findings

DiseaseModelReported effectReference

Allergic rhinitisHumanNo significant decrease[60]
Allergic rhinitisHumanNo significant decrease[89]
Allergic rhinitisHumanNo significant decrease[90]
Allergic rhinitisHumanSignificant decrease[91]

(c) Eosinophils: contradictory findings

DiseaseModelReported effectReference

Allergic rhinitisHumanNo significant difference in nasal or blood eosinophils[90]
Allergic rhinitisHumanNo significant difference in blood eosinophils[92]
Allergic rhinitisHumanSignificant decrease in blood eosinophils and percentage of nasal eosinophils[91]