Figure 3: Inhibition of cellular signalling pathways in PC-3 cells by Phyllanthus extracts. (a) Suppression of MAPKs and PI3 K/Akt pathways via inhibition on Ras, Raf, Elk, Rsk, Jnk, c-Jun, p38 MAPK, and Akt proteins. (b) Inhibition of Wnt pathway via down-regulation of dishevelled (DSH) and -catenin proteins in conjunction with upregulation of GSK3 . (c) Inhibition of Myc/Max and hypoxia pathways via down-regulation of c-myc, HIF-1 , and VEGF. (d) Inhibition of NF B pathway was observed when the expressions of p50 and p52 proteins were significantly downregulated. Bars show the mean percentage SEM.* and ** versus control.