Figure 5: Schematic diagram illustrating that Phyllanthus regulates multiple signalling pathways and protein activities in PC-3 cells. The suppression of (a) PI3K/Akt (Akt protein), (b) MAPKs (pan-Ras, c-Raf, RSK, Elk1, c-Jun, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK protein), (c) Wnt (DSH, Gsk3 , and -catenin proteins), Myc/Max (c-myc protein), hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF proteins) and NF B (p50 and p52 proteins) pathways by Phyllanthus plant extracts in PC-3 cells. (e) Apoptosis induction via up-regulation of Bax protein and down-regulation of Bcl-2 to induce caspase-3/7 activation in treated PC-3 cells. (f) A number of proteins involved in proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, metastasis, glycogenesis and glycolysis, protein synthesis as well as energy metabolism were found altered in PC-3 cells upon Phyllanthus treatment.