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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 609714, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/609714
Research Article

Protective Mechanisms of S. lycopersicum Aqueous Fraction (Nucleosides and Flavonoids) on Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies

1Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunohematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Interdisciplinary Excellence Research Program on Healthy Aging, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile
2Centro de Estudios en Alimentos Procesados (CEAP), CONICYT-Regional, Gore Maule, R09I2001, Chile
3Synthesis Laboratory, Chemical Institute of Natural Resources, Universidad de Talca, Chile
4Department of Hematology-Oncology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
5Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Universidad de Talca, Chile

Received 29 April 2013; Revised 14 July 2013; Accepted 8 August 2013

Academic Editor: Adair Santos

Copyright © 2013 Eduardo Fuentes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms of antiplatelet action of bioactive principle from S. lycopersicum. Aqueous fraction had a high content of nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, and adenosine 5′-monophosphate) by HPLC analysis. Also aqueous fraction presented flavonoids content. Aqueous fraction inhibited platelet activation by 15 ± 6% ( ). Fully spread of human platelets on collagen in the presence of aqueous fraction was inhibited from 15 ± 1 to 9 ± 1 μm2 ( ). After incubation of whole blood with aqueous fraction, the platelet coverage was inhibited by 55 ± 12% ( ). Platelet ATP secretion and aggregation were significantly inhibited by the aqueous fraction. At the same concentrations that aqueous fraction inhibits platelet aggregation, levels of sCD40L significantly decreased and the intraplatelet cAMP levels increased. In addition, SQ22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, attenuated the effect of aqueous fraction toward ADP-induced platelet aggregation and intraplatelet level of cAMP. Platelet aggregation ex vivo (human study) and thrombosis formation in vivo (murine model) were inhibited by aqueous fraction. Finally, aqueous fraction may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities (nucleosides and flavonoids) to processed foods.