Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Orally Administrated Denatured Naja Naja Atra Venom on Murine Rheumatoid Arthritis Models

Figure 2

Effects of the denatured NNAV on three inflammatory models induced by the injection of formaldehyde and egg white implantation of formaldehyde-soaked filter papers. KM mice were orally administrated with the denatured NNAV (30, 90, 270 μg/kg), the native NNAV (90 μg/kg), or saline once every 6 h before the injection of formaldehyde into the right hindpaw (a). Time spent in licking the injected paw during phase 1 (0–5 min) and phase 2 (20–30 min) was recorded. Rats were treated with the above drugs once daily for 5 days before injection of egg white (b). Paw edema was determined by measuring the paw volume using the method of water displacement. Rats were treated with the above drugs once daily for 7 days after implantation of paper pellets (c). Data represent mean ± SD ((a) , (b) , and (c) ). * , ** , *** compared with saline group; , denatured NNAV (270 μg/kg) versus TWP (15 mg/kg).

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