Figure 8: Effect of capsaicin on the expression of protein and mRNA of ERS markers in tumor tissues (control, PBS; CAP 1, capsaicin, 1 mg/kg; CAP 2.5, capsaicin, 2.5 mg/kg; CAP 5, capsaicin, 5 mg/kg). (a) Western blot analysis. Capsaicin promoted the protein expression of ERS markers (GRP78, phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, ATF4, and GADD153) in tumor tissues. β-tubulin was used as a loading control. The results shown are representative of three independent experiments. (b) Real-time PCR analysis for the mRNA expression of GRP78 and GADD153 in the control group and CAP 2.5 group. The relative amount of the target gene was normalized with the housekeeping gene RPLP0. Data are expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by the unpaired Student’s t-test, and compared with the control group.