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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 641480, 18 pages
Research Article

Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

1Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
2Laboratório de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Inovação, Apis Flora Indl. Coml. Ltda., 14020-670 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
3Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
4Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-040 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
5Laboratório Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Bioetanol-CTBE, Caixa Postal 6170, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 29 March 2013; Revised 12 June 2013; Accepted 13 June 2013

Academic Editor: Wojciech Król

Copyright © 2013 Andresa Aparecida Berretta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed.