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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 670451, 11 pages
Research Article

Evaluation of a Propolis Water Extract Using a Reliable RP-HPLC Methodology and In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy and Safety Characterisation

1Laboratório de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Inovação (P, D & I)-Apis Flora Industrial e Comercial LTDA, Rua Triunfo, 945, 14020-670 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
2Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
3Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Francisco Degni, 55, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
4Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
5Universidade de Franca, Avenida Dr. Armando Salles de Oliveira, 201-Parque Universitário, 14404-600 Franca, SP, Brazil

Received 30 December 2012; Revised 7 March 2013; Accepted 19 March 2013

Academic Editor: Vassya Bankova

Copyright © 2013 Bruno Alves Rocha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Since the beginning of propolis research, several groups have studied its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. However, most of these studies have only employed propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) leading to little knowledge about the biological activities of propolis water extract (PWE). Based on this, in a previous study, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of PWE. In order to better understand the equilibrium between effectiveness and toxicity, which is essential for a new medicine, the characteristics of PWE were analyzed. We developed and validated an RP-HPLC method to chemically characterize PWE and PEE and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant/antimicrobial activity for both extracts and the safety of PWE via determining genotoxic potential using in vitro and in vivo mammalian micronucleus assays. We have concluded that the proposed analytical methodology was reliable, and both extracts showed similar chemical composition. The extracts presented antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, while PWE demonstrated higher antioxidant activity and more efficacious for the most of the microorganisms tested than PEE. Finally, PWE was shown to be safe using micronucleus assays.