Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Fig 3

Research Article

Ameliorative Effects of Acanthopanax trifoliatus on Cognitive and Emotional Deficits in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice: An Animal Model of Depression and Cognitive Deficits

Figure 3

Evaluation of the modified Y-maze test of OBX-induced spatial working memory deficit mice using reference drug, tacrine or A. trifoliatus leaf extract (ATL). Surgical operation-naïve mice (OBX) were orally administered with distilled water 60 min before the sample phase trial while tacrine (2.5 mg/kg) and ATL (250 and 500 mg/kg) were administered by intraperitoneal injection and oral administration, respectively (n = 10). (a) Schematic drawings of the Y-maze and the experimental procedures. The maze was surrounded by different spatial cues. The sample trial and test trials were conducted for 5 min at a 30 min interval as described in the text. (b) The effects of ATL and THA on OBX-induced spatial working memory deficit in the modified Y-maze test. Each data column represents the mean ± SEM. * < 0.05 compared with vehicle-treated OBX group (Dunnett’s test).