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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 728258, 10 pages
Research Article

A New Herbal Formula, KSG-002, Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Targeting NF-κB-Dependent TNFα Production in Macrophages

1Laboratory of Clinical Biology and Pharmacogenomics, Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
2Center for Clinical Research and Genomics, Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea

Received 27 December 2012; Revised 8 March 2013; Accepted 9 May 2013

Academic Editor: David Baxter

Copyright © 2013 Sang-Mi Woo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor microenvironment regulate cancer progression and metastases. In breast cancer, macrophage infiltration is correlated with a poor prognosis. While metastatic breast cancer is poor prognostic with a severe mortality, therapeutic options are still limited. In this study, we demonstrate that KSG-002, a new herbal composition of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas, suppresses breast cancer via inhibiting TAM recruitment. KSG-002, an extract of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas at 3 : 1 ratio, respectively, inhibited MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in nude mice, while KSG-001, another composition (1 : 1 ratio, w/w), enhanced tumor growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis, in vivo. KSG-002 further decreased the infiltrated macrophage numbers in xenograft tumor cohorts. In Raw264.7 cells, KSG-002 but not KSG-001 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and reduced TNF-alpha (TNFα) production by inhibiting NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, a combinatorial treatment of KSG-002 with TNFα inhibited a proliferation and migration of both MDA-MB-231 and Raw264.7 cells. Taken together, we conclude that KSG-002 suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through targeting NF-κB-mediated TNFα production in macrophages.