Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

Table 1

Summary of studies of CGA on glucose and lipid metabolism.

Study (references) YearAnimal experiment Clinical trial Findings Mechanism of action
In  vivo/
in  vitro
Animal/cellDisease model

Karthikesan et al. [31]2010In  vivo STZ-NA-induced diabetic ratsT2DMHypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects
Karthikesan et al. [32]2010In  vivo STZ-NA-induced T2DM adult Wistar ratsT2DMhypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects
Pari et al. [33]2010In  vivo STZ-NA-induced T2DM adult Wistar ratsT2DMhypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects
Bassoli et al. [12]2008In  vitro Liver perfusionReduction in the plasma glucose peak in the oral glucose tolerance test
Alonso-Castro et al. [34]2008In  vitro 3T3-F442A murine adipocytesExerting antidiabetic effects on stimulating glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adipocytes
van Dijk et al. [35]2009Overweight menReducing early fasting glucose and insulin responses in overweight men during an OGTT
Ahrens and Thompson [36]2013T2DM patientsLowering the glycemic impact of foods and lowering background blood glucose levels of T2DM
Tousch et al. [37]2008In  vitro L6 muscular cellsStimulation of insulin secretion
Johnston et al. [38]2003Healthy fasted volunteersStimulation of insulin secretion
Liang et al. [42]2013In  vivo Mouse induced by high fat emulsionInsulin resistanceImprovement of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance
Rodriguez de Sotillo and Hadley [14]2002In  vivo (fa/fa) Zucker ratsT2DMLowering serum and hepatic CG and TG levels
Shimoda et al. [46]2006In  vivo Male ddy mice Inhibiting fat absorption and activating fat metabolism in the liver
Cho et al. [47]2010In  vivo High-fat diet induced-obese miceT2DMImprovement of obesity-related hormones levels
Karthikesan et al. [48]2010In  vivo STZ-NA induced diabetic ratsT2DMAlterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism
Wang et al. [50]2012In  vivo Mice induced by high-fat dietT2DMImprovement of antioxidant activities
Rodriguez de Sotillo et al. [15]2006In  vivo Obese Zucker (fa/fa) ratsT2DMImprovement of glucose tolerance and mineral pool distributionImprovement of cellular mechanisms
Zheng et al. [52]2007In  vivo Kud:Wistar ratsReducing the postprandialblood glucose concentrationInhibiting the activity of -glucosidase
Tunnicliffe et al. [59]2011In  vivo Male Sprague-Dawley ratsT2DMAttenuating AUC for blood glucoseAlteration of GIP concentrations
Ong et al. [63]2012In  vivo  
In  vitro
db/db mice
L6 skeletal muscle cells
T2DMStimulating glucose transport in L6 myotubes in a dose- and time-dependent mannerActivation of AMPK
Ong et al. [18]2013In  vivo  
In  vitro
Lepr db/db mice Hepatoma HepG2T2DMAttenuating hepatic steatosis, improving lipid profiles and skeletal muscle glucose uptake, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and dyslipidemiaActivation of AMPK
Gebhardt [64]1998In  vitro Primary cultured rat hepatocytesInhibiting HMG CoA reductase and inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol
Frank et al. [65]2003In  vivo Sprague-Dawley ratsStrengthening the activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)
Arion et al. [68]1997In  vitro Rat hepatic cellsCGA is the most specific T1 (the G-6-Pase transporter) inhibitor, and may inhibit hepatic G-6-Pase
Wang et al. [69]2012In  vivo Chemical-induced diabetic ratsT2DMExerting effects on improving blood glucose, TG, TC, and insulin sensitivityDownregulating expression of G-6-pase and upregulating mRNA levels of GLUT4
Zhang et al. [17]2011In  vivo db/db miceT2DMImprovement of the disordered glucose/lipid metabolismUpregulating expression of hepatic PPAR-
Li et al. [76]2009In  vivo Golden hamsters fed on high-fat dietT2DMModifying glucose and lipids metabolismUpregulating expression of hepatic PPAR-
Wan et al. [19]2013In  vivo Sprague-Dawley rats induced with a high-cholesterol dietHyperlipidemia Altering the increased plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein but decreased HDL induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvementUpregulating expression of hepatic PPAR-

STZ: streptozotocin; NA: nicotinamide; CPT: carnitine palmitoyl transferase; HMG CoA reductase: β-hydroxy-β-methyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase.