Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 819021, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/819021
Research Article

Compassionate Love as a Predictor of Reduced HIV Disease Progression and Transmission Risk

1Department of Psychology, University of Miami, FL, USA
2Department of Medicine, University of Miami, FL, USA

Received 6 July 2013; Accepted 19 September 2013

Academic Editor: Arndt Büssing

Copyright © 2013 Heidemarie Kremer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Oman, Compassionate Love: What Does the Research Show? [Ph.D. thesis], Fetzer Institute, 2010.
  2. N. K. Sewankambo, “Care of HIV-infected people in the developing world: practical aspects,” AIDS, vol. 3, 1, pp. S195–S199, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. G. Underwood, “The human experience of compassionate love. conceptual mapping and data from selected studies,” in Altruism and Altruistic Love, S. G. Post, L. G. Underwood, J. P. Schloss, and W. B. Hurlbut, Eds., pp. 72–88, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  4. L. G. Underwood, Compassionate Love: A framework for research, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2008.
  5. “AIDS and the family: families take care,” World AIDS Day Newsletter, vol. 2, article 1, 1994.
  6. S. Saxena, “Initial steps to developing the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL) module for international assessment in HIV/AIDS,” AIDS Care, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 347–357, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Fetzer Institute, “Compassionate love in a relational context,” 2013, http://www.fetzer.org/resources/compassionate-love-relational-context.
  8. L. G. Underwood, “Interviews with trappist monks as a contribution to research methodology in the investigation of compassionate love,” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 285–301, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. Ironson, “Altruism and health in HIV,” in Altruism and Health, S. G. Post, Ed., pp. 70–81, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. Ramirez-Valles and A. U. Brown, “Latinos' community involvement in HIV/AIDS: organizational and individual perspectives on volunteering,” AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 90–104, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Kremer and G. Ironson, “Everything changed: spiritual transformation in people with hiv,” International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 243–262, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Ironson, R. Stuetzle, D. Ironson et al., “View of God as benevolent and forgiving or punishing and judgmental predicts HIV disease progression,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 414–425, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Kremer, G. Ironson, and L. Kaplan, “The fork in the road: HIV as a potential positive turning point and the role of spirituality,” AIDS Care, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 368–377, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Ironson, H. Kremer, and D. Ironson, “Spirituality, spiritual experiences, and spiritual transformations in the face of HIV,” in Spiritual Transformation and Healing: Anthropological, Theological, Neuroscientific, and Clinical Perspectives, J. D. Koss and P. Hefner, Eds., pp. 241–262, AltaMira Press, Lanham, Md, USA, 1st edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  15. B. J. Seelig and L. S. Rosof, “Normal and pathological altruism,” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 956–959, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Ironson, C. O'Cleirigh, M. A. Fletcher et al., “Psychosocial factors predict CD4 and viral load change in men and women with human immunodeficiency virus in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1013–1021, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. Ironson, R. Stuetzle, and M. A. Fletcher, “An increase in religiousness/spirituality occurs after HIV diagnosis and predicts slower disease progression over 4 years in people with HIV,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 21, supplement 5, pp. S62–S68, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Kremer, G. Ironson, L. Kaplan, F. Lutz, R. Stuetzele, N. Baker et al., “Spiritual coping predicts HIV disease progression and transmission risk over four years”.
  19. R. L. Spitzer, J. B. W. Williams, M. Gibbon, and M. B. First, “The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). I: history, rationale, and description,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 624–629, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. G. Sarason and J. H. Johnson, “The life experiences survey: preliminary findings,” Technical Report SCS-LS-001, Office of Naval Findings, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  21. I. G. Sarason, J. H. Johnson, and J. M. Siegel, “Assessing the impact of life changes: development of the life experiences survey,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 932–946, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Kremer, G. Ironson, and F. Lutz, “Longitudinal spiritual coping with trauma in people with HIV: implications for health care,” AIDS Patient Care and STDs. In press.
  23. H.-F. Hsieh and S. E. Shannon, “Three approaches to qualitative content analysis,” Qualitative Health Research, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1277–1288, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Mayring, “Qualitative content analysis,” Forum, vol. 1, no. 2, article 20, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  25. P. Mayring, “Qualitative content analysis,” in Basics and Techniques, Deutscher Studien, Weinheim, Germany, 7th edition, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. R. Landis and G. G. Koch, “The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data,” Biometrics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 159–174, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. S. Cohen, Y. Q. Chen, M. McCauley et al., “Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 6, pp. 493–505, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. J. Read, S. Mandalia, P. Khan et al., “When should HAART be initiated in pregnancy to achieve an undetectable HIV viral load by delivery?” AIDS, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1095–1103, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. K. Robbins, K. L. Johnson, Y. Chang et al., “Predicting virologic failure in an HIV clinic,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 779–786, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Siegfried, O. A. Uthman, and G. W. Rutherford, “Optimal time for initiation of antiretroviral therapy in asymptomatic, HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 3, Article ID CD008272, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. W. Carrico, E. D. Riley, M. O. Johnson et al., “Psychiatric risk factors for HIV disease progression: the role of inconsistent patterns of antiretroviral therapy utilization,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 146–150, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG), “ACTG Adherence follow-up questionnaire,” 2001.
  33. S. W. Raudenbush and A. S. Bryk, in Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods, Sage, Newbury Park, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 2002.
  34. F. Lutz, H. Kremer, and G. Ironson, “Being diagnosed with HIV as a trigger for spiritual transformation,” Religions, vol. 2, pp. 398–409, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  35. D. Oman, C. E. Thoresen, and J. Hedberg, “Does passage meditation foster compassionate love among health professionals?: a randomised trial,” Mental Health, Religion and Culture, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 129–154, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. W. Carson, F. J. Keefe, T. R. Lynch et al., “Loving-kindness meditation for chronic low back pain: results from a pilot trial,” Journal of Holistic Nursing, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 287–304, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Kremer, Medical Decision-Making, Adherence and Quality of Life in People Living With HIV/AIDS, University of Tuebingen, 2005.
  38. M. K. Baum, C. Rafie, S. Lai, S. Sales, J. B. Page, and A. Campa, “Alcohol use accelerates HIV disease progression,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 511–518, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. D. Neff, “The role of self-compassion in development: a healthier way to relate to oneself,” Human Development, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 211–214, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. W. Hall, K. A. Row, K. L. Wuensch, and K. R. Godley, “The role of self-compassion in physical and psychological well-being,” Journal Psychology, vol. 147, no. 4, pp. 311–323, 2013. View at Google Scholar