Figure 5: Effect of glucosylceramide on the inflammation-related signals in the hippocampus of mice. Mice were administered with glucosylceramide (50 mg/kg) for 3 months. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 in hippocampus of brain was measured by immunoblot analysis. Glucosylceramide treatment decreased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in aged mice. GAPDH was used as an internal control. All values are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. from two independent experiments ( ). * indicates significant difference between the aged group and glucosylceramide-treated group.