Table 5: Identification of differentially expressed metabolites in the urine that may account for the discrimination between normal and model rats.

No.MetabolitesFormulaObsd. [M + H]+/[M − H] ( )Content variancecFCd e value

1Cholic acidC24H40O5407.2804a1.560.035
22-Phenylethanol glucuronideC14H18O7297.0954a−1.690.026
3Hippuric acidC9H9NO3178.0491a−1.810.040
43-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol sulfateC9H12O7S263.0221c2.530.025
76-Hydroxy-5-methoxyindole glucuronideC15H17NO8340.1016b−3.790.012
9Normeperidinic acid glucuronideC18H23NO8382.1497b−3.210.037
1013,14-dihydro PGF2αC20H36O5357.2724b2.010.028

Observed at ES mode [M − H]; bobserved at ES+ mode [M + H]+.
: content increased; : content decreased.
dFold change was calculated as the ratio of the mean metabolite levels between two groups. A positive value of fold change indicates a relatively higher concentration of metabolites while a negative value of fold change indicates a relatively lower concentration of metabolites in model rats as compared to normal rats.
e values were calculated from two-tailed Mann-Whitney test with a threshold of 0.05.