Table 2: Ranking of specific needs.

Item numberStated needsMeanSDRelated factor

N6Plunge into beauty of nature2.231.00IP
N25Feel connected with family1.891.26
N4Reflect previous life1.561.17EN
N13Turn to someone in a loving attitude1.521.24IP
N24Being complete and safe1.381.29
N29Invited for private meetings by friends again1.261.18
N14Give away something from yourself1.251.24(GG)
N15Solace someone1.091.20GG
N20Pray for yourself1.011.10RN
N9Listen to touching music0.991.12
N26Pass own life experiences to others0.981.06GG
N21Participate at a religious ceremony0.941.10RN
N7Dwell at a place of quietness and peace0.911.20IP
N2Talk with others about fears and worries0.701.12IP
N23Turn to a higher presence0.701.10RN
N1Receive more attention0.691.11
N8Find inner peace0.671.11IP
N11Talk with someone about the question of meaning in life0.551.00EN
N28Reinvolved by family in their life concerns0.430.90
N10Find meaning in illness and/or suffering0.410.84EN
N5Dissolve open aspects of your life0.370.87(EN)
N22Read religious/spiritual books0.280.72RN
N30Receive more support from your family0.280.75
N17Be forgiven0.260.72(IP)
N16Forgive someone from a distinct period of your life0.230.68EN
N12Talk with someone about the possibility of life after death0.220.66EN
N18Pray with someone0.190.60RN
N3Someone of your community (i.e., priest, chaplain) cares for you0.150.52(RN)
N19Someone prays for you0.110.49RN

Results are means ± standard deviation (SD) of the respective needs (range: 0–3). The items refer to the following factors: religious needs (RN), existential needs (EN), inner peace needs (IP), and giving/generativity (GG); some items are additional items which are not regarded as spiritual needs.