Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Table 1

Efficacy and mechanisms of Chinese herb-derived compounds in the treatment of MIR.

Mechanism of action in TCM terminologyPlantCompoundMechanismBiomarker/TargetsIn vivo/In vitroReferences

Tonifying Qi (energy) to activate circulation and enrich Blood Salvia miltiorrhiza Tanshinone IIAAnti-inflammationMCP-1, TGF-β1, TNF-α, NF-κBIn vivo[56]
AntioxidantVEGF, HIF-1 ; MDA, SOD, GPxBoth[68, 72]
AntiapoptosisBcl-2/Bax, caspase-3Both[72]
Promote angiogenesisVEGF, HIF-1 In vivo[68]
Promote BMSCs migrationSCF-1, CXCR-4In vivo[67]
Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonateAnti-apoptosisLDH, JNK, p38In vivo[73]
Magnesium tanshinoate BAnti-apoptosisp-JNK, cytochrome c, caspase-3In vitro [74]
Salvianolic acid AActivate calcium channels I-CaLIn vivo [75]
Salvianolic acid BPromote angiogenesisVEGFIn vivo[76]
Salvianolic acidsAntioxidant15-F2t-IsoP, ET-1, CK-MBIn vivo[77]
Reduce MECKIn vitro[78]
Tanshinone combined with salvianolic acidsInhibit of intracellular calcium, and anti-apoptosis, antioxidantsICAM-1, Ca2+In vivo[79]
Tanshinone IIA combined with salvianolic acid BAntioxidantCAT, L-arginine, eNOS, AMPK, AktIn vivo[80]
DanshensuAntioxidant, reduce MESOD, MDA; CKMB, LDHIn vivo[81]
Salvia miltiorrhiza extractAntioxidant, reduce MEMDA, SOD, and GPx; LDH, CK, GOTIn vivo[82, 83]
Aqueous extracts of Salvia miltiorrhizae Reduce ME, promote angiogenesisCK-MB and cTnT, 6-keto-PGF-1 /TXB-2In vivo[84]
Salvia miltiorrhizae AntioxidantCOX-2; TXB2, 6-keto-PGF1- In vivo[85]
Radix Ginseng Saponin of red ginsengInhibit Ca2+ overload, up-regulate KATPCa2+; KATP; cTnI; PI3KBoth[86, 87]
Total ginsenosidesAntioxidant, anti-apoptosisCa2+; eNOS, iNOS, GR; PI3K, AktIn vivo[87, 88]
Radix Ginseng extractsAntioxidant, reduce MENO, eNOS; CK, LDHIn vivo[88]
Astragalus membranaceus Astragaloside IVUp-regulate KATP channel subunits, facilitate KATP currentsKATP channel subunits Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR2A, SUR2BIn vivo[70]
Rhodiola Salidroside, tyrosolAnti-apoptosiscaspase-3, p-JNK, cytochrome cIn vitro[60]
Millettia pulchra 17-Methoxyl-7-hydroxy-benzene-furanchalconeAntioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosisMDA; TNF-α; NF-κB p65, Bcl-2-associated X proteinBoth[89]
Schisandra chinensis Schisandrin BAnti-inflammation and Hsp25, Hsp70In vivo[57]
Antioxidantcytochrome P-450In vivo [90]
Lycium barbarum Lycium barbarum polysaccharidesIncrease Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, anti-apoptosisNa+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase; Bax, Bcl-2In vivo[71]

Moving Qi and activating circulation to resolve stasisLigusticum wallichii TetramethylpyrazineAntioxidant, inhibit neutrophilHO-1; Migrated neutrophilIn vivo[91]
Aqueous extracts of Rhizoma ChuanxiongReduce ME, promote angiogenesisCK-MB, cTnT; 6-keto-PGF-1 /TXB-2In vivo[84]
Carthamus tinctorius L.Extracts of Carthamus tinctorius Antioxidant, anti-inflammationROS, MDA, SOD; CRP, TNF- , IL-1 ; PI3KBoth[92, 93]
Panax notoginseng Extracts of Panax notoginseng Antioxidant, anti-inflammationMDA, SOD; CRP, TNF- , IL-1 In vivo[92]
NotoginsengnosidesReduce MECKIn vitro[78]
Dipsacus asper Asperosaponin VIAntioxidant, reduce ME, and protect mitochondrial functionSOD, GOT, GPx, MDA; CK-MB, LDH, cTnT; ICDH, MDH, -KGDH, ATP, Ca2+In vivo[94]
Anti-apoptosis, reduce MEBcl2/Bax, caspase-3; LDH, CREB, PI3KIn vitro[95]
Pyrolae Flavonoid of Herba PyrolaeAntioxidant, reduce MESOD, MDA; CK, LDHIn vivo[96]
Lamiophlomis rotata Forsythoside BAntioxidant, anti-inflammationMDA, MPO, SOD, GPx;Tn-T, TNF- , IL-6, HMGB1; IkBa, NF-κBIn vivo[50]
Sida cordifolia L.Hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L.Antioxidant, reduce MESOD, CAT; LDH, CK-MBIn vivo[24]
Desmodium Desmodium gangeticumStimulate muscarinic receptorsMuscarinic receptorIn vivo[97]

Inducing Diuresis to resolve stasisLeonurus 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-(3-(2-carbonyl-ethyldisulfanyl)-propionyl)-benzoic acid
4-Guanidino-butyl ester
Anti-apoptosisCaspase-3, Bcl-2/Bax, AktIn vitro[61]
4-Guanidino-n-butyl syringateInhibit Ca2+ overload, antiapoptosisCa2+; Bcl-2, Bax, LDHIn vivo[98]
Acorus gramineus Acori graminei Rhizoma Inhibit calcium overloadCa2+In vivo[99]
Phytolacca Oleanolic AcidAnti-apoptosisAMPK, p38, FOXO3In vitro[100]
Tetrandra TetrandrineInhibit neutrophil, antioxidantneutrophil adhesion, Mac-1; ROSIn vivo[23]

Cooling Blood to stop bleedingBaicalensis Botanical FlavonoidsAntioxidantROS, NO, SOD, CAT, GPxBoth[101, 102]
Coptidis rhizoma PalmatineAntioxidant, reduce MESOD, MDA, COX-2; LDH, CKIn vivo[49]
Buxus microphylla Cyclovirobuxine DAntioxidant, reduce MEKATP channel opening; NO, ROS, SOD, MDA; CPK, LDH, FFAIn vivo[52, 103]

Tonifying Qi to invigorate Yang Cinnamon 2-MethoxycinnamaldehydeAntioxidant, anti-inflammationVCAM-1,TNF- , HO-1In vivo[51]
Herba Cistanches A semipurified fraction of Herba CistanchesProtect mitochondrial function, antioxidant, and anti-apoptosisATP-generation, mitochondrial uncoupling; GSH; caspase-3Both[65]

Regulating Qi and moving Qi Corydalis Corydalis yanhusuo extractAnti-apoptosisBax, Bcl-2In vivo[104]
Magnolia officinalis MagnololAntioxidant; inhibit neutrophilMPO, superoxide anion; migrated neutrophilIn vivo[105]

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